Prof KENNEDY, Kerry John    甘國臻 教授
Advisor (Academic Development)
Department of Curriculum and Instruction
Contact
ORCiD
0000-0003-1332-3004
Phone
(852) 2948 8525
Fax
(852) 2948 7563
Email
kerryk@eduhk.hk
Address
10 Lo Ping Road, Tai Po, New Territories, Hong Kong
Scopus ID
10639197000
Research Interests
Civic & Citizenship Education / Curriculum Policy & Theory
External Appointments

Honourary Professor, South China Normal University.

Honourary Professor, Management and Science University, Malaysia.

Auditor, Quality Audit Council, Hong Kong (2012).

Ad Hoc Panel Member, Hong Kong Council for Academic Accreditation and Vocational Qualifications (2012-current).

Director, HKIEd Schools Limited (2012-2013).

Series Editor, Routledge Series on Schools and Schooling in Asia

Series Editor, Asia-Europe Education Dialogue Series, Routledge

Series Editor, Hong Kong Teacher Education Series, Hong Kong Univeristy Press

Series Co-Editor, Springer Series on Governance and Citizenship in Asia

Editor, Curriculum Perspectives, 2012-2017

Co-Editor, Educational Studies, 2015-2018

Advisory Board Member, European Centre for Research on Identity and Citizenship, 2012-current.

Member, Domain Technical Review Panel (Global Citizenship) of the Southeast Asia Primary Learning Metrics (SEA-PLM) Project, 2015.

Consultant, South East Asian Ministers of Education Organization's South East Asia Basic Education Standards Project, 2015.

Distinguished Visiting Professor of Curriculum Studies, University of Johannesberg, 2016-current

Personal Profile

Professor Kerry Kennedy is currently Professor Emeritus, Advisor (Academic Development) and member of the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at The Education University of Hong Kong. He is also a Distinguished Visiting Professor of Curriculum Studies at the University of Johannesburg. Previously he was Chair Professor of Curriculum Studies, Director of the Centre for Governance and Citizenship, Dean of the Faculty of Education and Human Development and Associate Vice-Presdient (Quality Assurance) at the then Hong Kong Institute of Education.

Prior to comming to Hong Kong in 2001, he was Assistant Director of the Australian Government's Curriculum Development Centre, Dean of the Faculty of Education at the Univeristy of Southern Queensland, Director of the Centre for Continuing Education at The Australian National Univeristy and Dean of the Faculty of Education at the University of Canberra where he was also Pro Vice-Chancellor (Academic).

He did his undergraduate studies and initial professional education at the University of New South Wales in Sydney. He has Bachelor of Arts and Master of Education degrees from the University of New South Wales and a Master of Letters degree in Australian History from the University of New England. He completed an MA and PhD at Stanford University. His research interests are in curriculum policy and theory with a special interest in civic and citizenship education.

He has won research grants from the Australian Research Council, the Hong Kong Research Grants Council and the Hong Kong SAR Government's Central Policy Unit. He is curently a co-investigator ina most recent research project funded by the Hong Kong SAR Government,s Policy and Innovation Coordiantion Office (PICO), Ethnic Minorities and Hong Kong's Current Protests: Non-Chinese "Hongkonger" Communities and their Values. He has recently completed projects for PICO concerned with assylum seekers in Hong Kong and Hong Kong's youth radicalism.He published Changing Schools for Changing Times - New Directions for the School Curriculum in Hong Kong (Chinese University Press, 2005) now translated into Chinese (解讀香港教育:香港學校課程的新趨勢 - Chinese University Press, 2011). He co-authored (with Professor John Chi Kin Lee) Changing Schools in Asia: Schools for the Knowledge Society (Routledge, 2010). He co-edited (with Dr Gregory Fairbrother and Dr Zhao Zhenzhou) Chinese Citizenship Education: Preparing Citizens for the "Chinese Century" (Routledge, 2014). His co-authored book with Laurie Brady, Curriculum Construction, is now in its 6th Edition (Pearson Education, 2018) He co-edited (with Professor Andeas Brunold), Regional Contexts for Citizenship Education in Asia and Europe (Routledge,2015). In 2016, he co-authored with Dr Miron Bhowmik, Out-of-School Ethnic Minority Young People in Hong Kong, for Springer. He co-edited with Professor John Lee Theorizing Teaching and Learning in Asia and Europe-A Conversation between Chinese Curriculum and European Didactics (Routledge, 2017). He worked with Professors Beata Krzywosz-Rynkiewicz and Anna Zalewska editing Young People and Active Citizenship in Post-Soviet Times: A Challenge for Citizenship Education, published in 2018. He is the Co-Editor (with Professor John Chi Kin Lee) of the Routledge International Handbook of Schools and Schooling in Asia that was launched at the International Conference of the Korean Association for Multicultural Education in Seoul, Korea in May 2018. In 2019 he published Civic and Citizenship Education in Volatile Times: Preparing Young People for Citizenship in the 21st Century, published by Springer in 2019 [This publication was given the Book Award for 2019 by the Children's Identity and Citizenship Education European Associations (CiCea)]. In 2020 his coedited book with Professor Javier Calvo de Mora, Schools and Informal Learning in a Knowledge-Based World was published by Routledge. His edited book, Social Studies in East Asian Contexts was published by Routledge in 2021 along with Religious Education in Asia: Diversity in Globalized Times, coedited with Professor John Lee (published in the Routledge Series on Life and Values Education). He also published Social Studies Education in South and South East Asian Contexts in 2021. He has recently published Civic Engagement in Changing Contexts - Challenges and Possibilities for Democracy for Springer and co-edited with Professor Beata Krzywosz- Rynkiewicz, Reconstructing Democracy and Citizenship Education - Lessons from Central and Eastern Europe for Routledge. In 2023 he co-edited with Dr Margarita Pavlova and Professor John Chi-Kin Lee, Soft Skills and Hard Values - Meeting Education's 21st Century Challenges for Routledge. His most recent publication, co-edited with Professor John Chi-Kin Lee, is the Routledge International Handbook for Life and Values Education in Asia that was released in June 2024. He is currently working on a new book for Springer, Disruptions and Civic Education - How Should Young People be Prepared for an Uncertain Future?, due for release in 2025.

He is the Series Editor of the Routledge Series on Schools and Schooling in Asia, the Asia-Europe Education Dialogue Series, the Perspectives on Education in Africa Series and the Springerbriefs Series on Civic and Citizenship Education in the 21st Century. He is the Co- Editor of the Springer Series on Governance and Citizenship in Asia and the Routledge Series on Life and Values Education. He is currently Editor-in-Chief of Springer's Discover Education, former Editor of Curriculum Perspectives, the journal of the Australian Curriculum Studies Association, and former Associate Editor of Educational Studies. In 2012 he was the Co-Winner of the Richard M. Wolf Memorial Award for educational research presented by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. He was the recipient of the Children's Identity and Citizenship Education European Associations' (CiCea) Outstanding Achievement Award for 2018. He is a Fellow of the Australian College of Educators and a Life Member of the Australian Curriculum Studies Association.


Research Interests

Civic & Citizenship Education / Curriculum Policy & Theory
External Appointments

Honourary Professor, South China Normal University.

Honourary Professor, Management and Science University, Malaysia.

Auditor, Quality Audit Council, Hong Kong (2012).

Ad Hoc Panel Member, Hong Kong Council for Academic Accreditation and Vocational Qualifications (2012-current).

Director, HKIEd Schools Limited (2012-2013).

Series Editor, Routledge Series on Schools and Schooling in Asia

Series Editor, Asia-Europe Education Dialogue Series, Routledge

Series Editor, Hong Kong Teacher Education Series, Hong Kong Univeristy Press

Series Co-Editor, Springer Series on Governance and Citizenship in Asia

Editor, Curriculum Perspectives, 2012-2017

Co-Editor, Educational Studies, 2015-2018

Advisory Board Member, European Centre for Research on Identity and Citizenship, 2012-current.

Member, Domain Technical Review Panel (Global Citizenship) of the Southeast Asia Primary Learning Metrics (SEA-PLM) Project, 2015.

Consultant, South East Asian Ministers of Education Organization's South East Asia Basic Education Standards Project, 2015.

Distinguished Visiting Professor of Curriculum Studies, University of Johannesberg, 2016-current

Research Outputs

Scholarly Books, Monographs and Chapters
Research book or monograph (author)
Calvo de Mora, J. and Kennedy, K. (Eds.) (2020). Informal Learning in a Knowledge Based World. London & New York: Routledge.
Kennedy, K. (2019). Civic and Citizenship Education in Volatile Times - Preparing Students for Citizenship in the 21st Century. Singapore: Springer.
Bhowmik, M.K., & Kennedy, K.J. (2016). 'Out of-School' Ethnic Minority Young People in Hong Kong. Singapore: Springer.
Li, L., & Kennedy, K. J. (2016). Leadership for Civic Learning in Hong Kong: The Role of School and Community.. Hong Kong: the Joseph Lau Luen Hung Charitable Trust Asia Pacific Centre for Leadership and Change, the Education University of Hong Kong.
Bhowmik, M. & Kennedy, K. (2016). 'Out of School' Ethnic Minority Young People in Hong Kong. Singapore: Springer.
Kennedy, K. (2014). Curriculum Construction [5th Ed.]. Sydney: Pearson Education Australia.
Chang, G.C., Huong, L.T., Kennedy, K.J., & Tsui, K.T. (2013). Education microplanning toolkit (Electronic version only). Bangkok: UNESCO Office Bangkok; Hong Kong Institute of Education.
Brady, L. and Kennedy, K. (2011). Assessment and Reporting - Celebrating Student Achievement (4th Ed.). Sydney: Pearson Education.
Kennedy, K. (2011). 解讀香港教育:香港學校課程的新趨勢. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.
Brady, L., & Kennedy, K. J. (2010). Curriculum Construction (4th Ed.). Sydney, Australia: Pearson Education.
Kennedy, K. J. & Lee J. C. K. (2010). The Changing Role of Schools in Asian Societies - Schools for the Knowledge Society. London, United Kingdom: Routledge.
Kennedy, K., & Lee, J.C.K. (2010). The Changing Role of Schools in Asian Societies: Schools for the Knowledge Society. New York/London: Routledge, 228 pp..
Kennedy, K. J., & Lee, J. C. K. (2008). The Changing Role of Schools in Asian Societies - Schools for the Knowledge Society. London/ New York: Routledge.
Brady, L., & Kennedy, K. J. (2007). Curriculum Construction (3rd edition). 350 pp., Sydney: Pearson Education.
Kennedy, K. J. (2005). Changing Schools for Changing Times - New Directions for the School Curriculum in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.
Chapter in an edited book (author)
Gube, J., Chan, N. C., Lee, D. H. L., Kennedy, K., & Bhowmik, M. (2024). Creating pathways for cultural inclusion: Informal learning and teacher education in Hong Kong. In P. Downes, J. Anderson, A. Behtoui, & L. Van Praag, Promoting inclusive systems for migrants in education (143-163). Routledge.
K. Kennedy (2024). Spirituality education as engagement with life. In J.C.K Lee and Kerry J Kennedy (Eds.), The Routledge International Handbook of Life and Values Education in Asia (1st ed.). (xxx-xxx). London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003352471
Kennedy, K.J. (2023). Asia-Pacific-realist and imaginary constructions. In R.J. Tierney, F. Riziv & K. Ercikan (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Education (4th ed.) (pp. 412-418). Oxford: Elsevier Science. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-818630-5.01048-4
Kerry J. KENNEDY, Margarita PAVLOVA, John Chi-Kin LEE (2023). Skills agendas in the 21st century: Understanding the stories. Kerry J. KENNEDY, Margarita PAVLOVA, John Chi-Kin LEE (Eds), Soft skills and hard values: Meeting education's 21st century challenges (3-18). Oxon and New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003219415-2
Kennedy, K. J., Pavlova, M., & Lee, J. C.-K. (2022). Constructing the future: Integrating values and skills to meet the challenges of a precarious world. Kerry J. KENNEDY, Margarita PAVLOVA, John Chi-Kin LEE, Soft skills and hard values: Meeting education's 21st century challenges (199-211). London, United Kingdom: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003219415-15
Kennedy, K.J. (2022). Democracy's future in Central and Eastern Europe: Building coalitions, enhancing agency. In B. Krzywosz-Rynkiewicz, & K.J. Kennedy (Eds.), Reconstructing democracy and citizenship education: Lessons from Central and Eastern Europe (pp. 194-205). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003140528-15
Kennedy, K.J. (2022). Teacher education for the Fourth Industrial Revolution: Teachers, technologies, and transformation. In S. Gravett, & N. Petersen (Eds.), Future-proofing teacher education: Voices from South Africa and beyond (pp. 34-46). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003185499-4
Krzywosz-Rynkiewicz, B., & Kennedy, K.J. (2022). De-Europeanization, populism and illiberalism:Young people and democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. In B. Krzywosz-Rynkiewicz, & K.J. Kennedy (Eds.), Reconstructing Democracy. and Citizenship Education: Lessons from Central and Eastern Europe (pp. 1-11). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003140528-1
Kennedy, K. (2022). Family diversity in Asian contexts: Local multiculturalisms for new contexts. Jan GUBE, Fang GAO, Miron BHOWMIK, Identities, practices and education of evolving multicultural families in Asia-Pacific (177-184). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003173724
Zhao, Z., Kennedy, K. J., and Wang, X. (2022). Civic belief systems in Chinese citizenship education. In Zhonghua Guo (Ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Chinese Citizenship (pp. 365-375). New York: Routledge.
Kennedy, K.J., & Kuang, X. (2021). Asian Students’ Preferred Forms of Future Civic Engagement: Beyond Conventional Participation. In E. Treviño, D. Carrasco, E. Claes, K.J. Kennedy (Eds.), Good Citizenship for the Next Generation - A Global Perspective Using IEA ICCS 2016 Data (pp. 193-213). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
Kennedy, K.J., & Kuang, X. (2021). Predictors of Asian Adolescents’ Democratic Understanding. In E. Treviño, D. Carrasco, E. Claes, & K.J. Kennedy (Eds.), Good Citizenship for the Next Generation - A Global Perspective Using IEA ICCS 2016 Data (pp. 171-191). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-75746-5
Kennedy, K. (2021). An exploration of social studies education in Asian contexts. Kerry J KENNEDY, Social studies education in South and South East Asian contexts (3-14). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003057598
Kennedy, K. (2021). Exploring Asian students’ citizenship values: Using secondary data analysis for theory building.. In J.Torney-Purta & B. Malak-Minkiewicz (Eds.), Contributions of IEA’s Civic and Citizenship Studies - Practice, Policy, and Research Across Countries and Regions (233-245). Switzerland: Springer.
Kennedy, K. (2021). Interrogating the nature of Asian social studies. Kerry J KENNEDY, Social studies education in South and South East Asian contexts (223-234). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003057598
Kennedy, K. (2021). A role for social studies education in a changing world.. In K. Kennedy (Ed.), Social studies education in East Asian contexts (177-186). London & New York: Routledge.
Kennedy, K. (2021). Anti-diversity and its multiple contexts: Multiculturalism’s ordeals in Asia and Europe.. In C. Halse & K. Kennedy (Eds.), Multiculturalism in turbulent times (211-222). London & New York: Routledge.
Kennedy, K. (2021). The development of social studies education: An international perspective.. In K. Kennedy (Ed.), Social studies education in East Asian contexts (3-16). London & New York: Routledge.
Kennedy, K. & Lee, J.C.K. (2020). Religion, modernities and education: Contexts for Asia’s religious education. K. Kennedy & J.C.K.Lee, In Religious Education in Asia: Spiritual Diversity and Globalized Times (1-11). London & New York: Routledge.
Lee, J.C.K & Kennedy K. (2020). Religious education as a regional influence on life and development in Asia.. K. Kennedy & J.C.K. Lee, In Religious Education in Asia: Spiritual Diversity n Globalized Times (163-180). London & New York: Routledge.
Calvo de Mora, J. & Kennedy, K. (2020). Open schools and shared responsibilities: Integrating informal and formal learning in 21st-century schools. In J. Calvo de Mora, J. & K. Kennedy (Eds.), Schools and Informal Learning in a Knowledge Based World (203-215). London & New York: Routledge.
Cheung, H. W. C., Bhowmik, M. K., Kennedy, K. J., Ng, H. Y., & Hue, M. T. (2020). Religious and Ethnic Identification of Minoritized Youth in Hong Kong: Exploring Acculturation Outcomes. In E. Delgado-Algarra, & J. M. Cuenca-López (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Citizenship and Heritage Education (331-350). USA: IGI Global.
K. Kennedy & X. Kuang (2020). Asian students’ informal civic learning: Can it enhance civic knowledge and values?. In J. Calvo de Mora and K. Kennedy (Eds.), Schools and Informal Learning in a Knowledge Based World (83-98). London & New York: Routledge.
Ng, H.Y., & Kennedy, K.J. (2019). Citizenship status and identities of ethnic minorities: Cases of Hong Kong Filipino youth. In J. Gube, & F. Gao (Eds.), Education, Ethnicity and Equity in the Multilingual Asian Context (pp.123-140). Singapore: Springer.
Kennedy, K. (2018). Equality, citizenship and belonging: Why is developing an inclusive and caring society so hard?. In C. Halse (Ed.), Interrogating belonging for young people in schools (187-199). London: Palgrave Macmillan.
K. Kennedy & J.C.K Lee (2018). Schools and schooling in Asia: Achievements and challenges for "Asia rising": An Introduction to the Handbook. In K. Kennedy & J.C.K Lee (Eds.), Handbook of Schools and Schooling in Asia (1-11). London and New York: Routledge.
Kennedy, K. (2018). Understanding post-Soviet transitions as contexts for the development of active citizens. In Beata Krzywosz-Rynkiewicz, Anna Zalewska & Kerry J Kennedy (Eds.), Young People and Active Citizenship in Post-Soviet Timnes - A Challenge for Citizenship Education (3-15). New York & London: Routledge.
Kennedy, K. Krzywosz-Rynkiewicz, B & Zalewska, A. (2018). Concluding comments: Can we produce resilient citizens for volatile times? Contexts, strategies and future research. In Beata Krzywosz-Rynkiewicz, Anna Zalewska & Kerry J Kennedy (Eds.), In Young People and Active Citizenship in Post-Soviet Timnes - A Challenge for Citizenship Education (253-262). New York & London: Routledge.
J.C.K Lee and K. Kennedy (2017). Theorizing curriculum, teaching and learning in multiple spaces. In John Chi-Kin Lee and Kerry J Kennedy (Eds.), Theorizing Teaching and Learning in Asia and Europe – A Conversation between Chinese Curriculum and European Didactics (1-10). London and New York: Routledge.
K. Kennedy and K. Chan (2017). If student engagement is the objective then engaged teachers may be the answer. In Rupert Maclain (ed.), Life in Classrooms – Past, Present and Future (307-322). Dordrecht: Springer.
K.Kennedy and J.C.K. Lee (2017). Lessons learned from theorizing curriculum, learning and teaching in an Asia-Europe dialogue. In John Chi-Kin Lee and Kerry J Kennedy (Eds.), Theorizing Teaching and Learning in Asia and Europe – A Conversation between Chinese Curriculum and European Didactics (311-322). London and New York: Routledge.
Kennedy, K., Hui, K.F., & Chan, W.M. (2016). Hong Kong schools and transversal competencies. In K. Kennedy, Z. Zhu, K.F. Hui, H. Li, W.M. Chan & L.G. Wai (Eds.), Transversal competencies in education policy and practice: The cases of Hong Kong and Beijing schools. Report to UNESCO Bangkok’s ERI-Net Project, “Preparing and Supporting Teachers to Meet the Challenges of Transversal Learning” (pp.11-42). Hong Kong: The Education University of Hong Kong.
K. Kennedy (2016). Exploring the influence of culture on assessment: The case of teachers’ conceptions of assessment in Confucian Heritage Cultures. In G.T.L. Brown & L.R. Harris (Eds.)., Handbook of Social and Human Conditions in Assessment (404-419). New York: Routledge.
K. Kennedy (2016). Kulturen, familjen och scholan – förklaringar till Hongkongs framgånger I storskaliga kunskapsmӓtningar. In Okhwa Lee & Tomas Kroksmark (Eds.)., Vӓrldens Bӓsta Undervisning – I Finland, Kina, Sydkorea, Singapore och Sverige. (245-262). Lund: Studentlitteratur..
K.Kennedy (2016). Civic education in Hong Kong. In Andrew Peterson & Libby Tudball (Eds.)., Civics and Citizenship Education in Australia: Challenges, Practices and International Perspectives (245-261). London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Law, E.H.F.,Galton, M., Kennedy, K. & Lee, J.C.K. (2016). Developing curriculum leadership among teachers for school-based curriculum innovations in Hong Kong: A distributed and problem solving approach. M. Robertson & P.K. Tsang, Everyday Knowledge, education & Sustainable Futures (177-193). Singapore: Routledge.
Kennedy, K. J., Li, H., & Zhao, Z.Z. (2015). Theorizing Citizenship as Discursive Practice: Chinese Students Talk about Citizenship. In Zhonghua Guo and Sujian Guo (Eds.), Theorizing Chinese Citizenship (191-208). Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books.
K. Kennedy (2015). Curriculum structure. In Richard Gunstone (Editor), Encyclopedia of Science Education (280-282). London: Springer Reference.
Yuen, Y. M. C., Cheung, A., Kennedy, K., & Leung, Y. W. (2014). Family income, parents’ education, individual characteristics and engagement with school and civic society among adolescents from diverse cultures in Hong Kong. Veiga, F. (Coord.) (2014)Envolvimento dos Alunos na Escola: Perspetivas Internacionais da Psicologia e Educação/Students' Engagement in School: International Perspectives of Psychology and Education.. In F. Veiga (Ed.), Students' Engagement in School: International Perspectives of Psychology and Education (212-228). Lisboa: Instituto de Educação da Universidade de Lisboa.
K. Kennedy & X. Kuang (2014). Hong Kong students’ identity under Chinese sovereignty: Are Hong Kong students loyal and patriotic?. In Colin Marsh & J.C.K. Lee (Eds.)., Asia’s High Performing Education Systems: the Case of Hong Kong (102-116). New York: Routledge.
Kennedy, K. J., & LI, H. (2014). Civic education in Asia. In Wolfgang Sander (Ed.), Handbuch Politische Bildung (599-608). Germany: Wochenschau-Verlag.
Kennedy, K.J. (2014). Introduction: Educating Chinese citizens for the "Chinese century" - View from the inside. In K. Kennedy, G. Faibrother & Z. Zhao, Citizenship Education in China: Preparing Citizens for the Chinese Century (1-10). New York: Routledge.
Kennedy, K.J., Fairbrother, G.P., & Zhao, Z. (2014). Understanding Citizenship Education in China: Multiple Perspectives. In K.J. Kennedy, G.P. Fairbrother, & Z. Zhao, Citizenship Education in China: Preparing Citizens for the "Chinese Century" (222-234). London: Routledge.
Mok, M. M. C., Kennedy, K. J., & Zhu, J. (2013). Adolescents’ civic engagement: A study of five Asian societies.. G. A. D. Liem, & A. Bernardo, Advancing Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Educational Psychology: A Festschrift for Dennis McInerney (168-192). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
K. Kennedy (2013). Shaping the school curriculum in Chinese societies. In E.H.F. Law & C. Li (Eds.)., Curriculum Innovations in Changing Societies: Chinese Perspectives from Hong Kong, Taiwan and Mainland China (3-12). Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
K. Kennedy (2013). Transformational issues in curriculum reform: Perspectives from Hong Kong. In E.H.F. Law & C. Li (Eds.)., Curriculum Innovations in Changing Societies: Chinese Perspectives from Hong Kong, Taiwan and Mainland China (41-60). Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
Kennedy, K. J. (2013). Singapore’s School Curriculum for the Future: Beyond National Development?. Zongyi Deng, S. Gopinathan, Christine Kim-Eng Lee (Eds.)., Globalization and the Singapore Curriculum: From Policy to Classroom (205-224). Singapore: Springer.
Kennedy, K. (2013). Education: Social Elevator or Holding Area?. In P. Hughes (Ed.), Achieving Quality Education for All - Perspectives from Asia-Pacific Region and Beyond. (43-50). Heidleberg: Springer (in press).
Kerry Kennedy and Joseph Kui Foon Chow (2013). Schooling's contribution to a sustainable future in Asia: Can schools develop 'green' citizens?. Rupert Maclean, Shanti Jagannathan and Jouko Sarvi (Eds)., Skills Development for Inclusive and Sustainable Growth in Developing Asia-Pacific (345-368). Dordrecht: Springer.
Lee, W.O. & Kennedy, K. (2013). Hong Kong SAR. In John Ainley, Wolfram Schulz & Tim Friedman (Eds.), ICCS 2009 Encyclopedia- Approaches to civics and citizenship education around the world (185-194). Amsterdam: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement.
Kennedy, K. J., Mok, M. M. C., & Wong, M. Y. W. (2011). Developing Political Trust in Adolescents: Is there a Role for Schools?. In Bernadette R. Curtis (Ed.), The Psychology of Trust (137-156). U.S.A: Nova Science Publishers.
Kennedy, K. (2011). Politische Bildung in der Weltgesellschaft-ein globaler Verleich der Entwicklungstendenzen im Fach.. In W. Sander and A.Scheunpflug (Hrsg.), Politische in der Weltgesellschaft - Herausforderungen, Positionen, Kontroversen. Perspektiven Politischer Bildung (309-328). Bonn: Bundesczentrale fur politische Bildung.
Kennedy, K. (2011). The ‘long march’ to multiculturalism: Policymaking in Hong Kong to support ethnic minority students. In J. Phillion, MT. Hue & Y. Wang (Eds)., Education for Minority Students in East Asia: Government Policies, School Practices and Teacher Responses (155-173). New York: Routledge Series on Schools and Schooling in Asia.
Adamson, B. & Kennedy, K. (2010). Pragmatic international transfer and outcomes-based curriculum design in Hong Kong.. In Popov, N., Wolhunter, C., Leutwyler, B, Mihova, M. & Ogunleye, J. (Eds.), Comparative education, teacher training, education policy, school leadership and social inclusion, Volume 8 (203-208). Sofia, Bulgaria: Bureau for Educational Services.
Kennedy, K. J. (2010). International perspectives. In C. Kridel (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Curriculum Studies (493-497). Thousand Oaks, CA.: SAGE Publications.
Kennedy, K. J. (2010). Transnational research. In C. Kridel (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Curriculum Studies (899-902). Thousand Oaks, CA.: SAGE Publications.
Kennedy, K. J. (2010). Neo-statism and post-globalization as contexts for new times. In A. Reid, J. Gill & A. Sears (Eds.), Globalisation, the Nation-State and the Citizen: Dilemmas and Directions for Civics and Citizenship Education (223-229). London, United Kingdom: Routledge.
Kennedy, K. J. (2010). Pedagogies: Possibilities and realities for citizenship education. In K. Kennedy, W. O. Lee & D. Grossman (Eds.), Citizenship Pedagogies in Asia and the Pacific (1-14). Hong Kong and Dordecht: Comparative Education Research Centre and Springer.
Kennedy, K. J. (2009). Comparing Hong Kong and European union students' conceptions of citizenship responsibilities: What can we learn about "Good citizens" ?. In J. Calvo de Mora (Ed.), Sharing responsibilities and networking through school process (pp. 57-81). Granada: Regional Ministry of Science, Innovation and Industry of Junta de Andalucia.
Kennedy, K. J. (2008). Civics and citizenship education. In C. Marsh (Ed.), Studies of Society and Environment - Exploring the Teaching Possibilities (5th) (pp.388-407). Sydney, Australia: Pearson Education.
Kennedy, K. J. (2008). Globalized economies and liberalized curriculum: New challenges for national citizenship education. In D. L. Grossman, W. O. Lee, & K. J. Kennedy (Eds.), Citizenship Curriculum in the Asia Pacific (1st) (pp.13-28). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
Kennedy, K. J. (2008). More civics, less democracy: Competing discourses for citizenship education in Australia. In D. L. Grossman, W. O. Lee, & K. J. Kennedy (Eds.), Citizenship Curriculum in the Asia Pacific (1st) (pp.181-196). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
Kennedy, K. J. (2008). Theoretical perspectives for understanding studies of society and environment. In C. Marsh (Ed.), Studies of Society and Environment - Exploring the Teaching Possibilities (5th) (pp.2-18). Sydney, Australia: Pearson Education.
Kennedy, K. J. (2007). Civics. The Oxford Companion to Australian Politics (1st) (pp.104-105). Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press.
Kennedy, K. J. (2007). Curriculum reforms and instructional improvement in Asia. In T. Townsend (Ed.), International Handbook of School Effectiveness and Improvement - Part 2 (1st) (pp.807-824). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
Kennedy, K. J. (2007). Learning to be tolerant: Lessons from research. In R. Maclean (Ed.), Learning and Teaching for the Twenty - First Century(1st) (pp.57-78). Bonn, Germany: Springer.
Mok, M. M. C., Cheng, Y. C., Leung, S. O., Shan, P. W. J., Moore, P., & Kennedy, K. (2007). Self-directed learning as a key approach to effectiveness of education: A comparison among Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. In T. Townsend (Ed.), International Handbook of School Effectiveness and Improvement (pp.839-858). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
Kennedy, K. J. (2007). Reframing civic education for new citizenships: The civic needs of "one country, two systems". In J. C. de M. Martinez (Ed.), New Schooling Through Citizenship Practice: Contents and Porcess (pp.203-220). Bulgaria: Veliko Turnovo University.
Kennedy, K. J., & Mellor, S. (2005). Development a 'Democracy of the mind': Lessons for Australian schools from the IEA civic education study (also published as 14 (2), Oxford studies in comparative education). In S. Wilde (Ed.), Political and Citizenship Education: International Perspectives (pp.49-60). United Kingdom: Symposium Books.
Kennedy, K. J. (2005). Charting the global contexts of the school curriculum: Why curriculum solutions are never simple. In C. Harris, & C. Marsh (Eds.), Curriculum Developments in Australia: Promising Initiatives, Impasses and Dead-ends (pp.1-14). Adelaide: Openbook Publishers.
Kennedy, K. J., & Fairbrother, G. P. (2004). Asian perspectives on citizenship education: Postcolonial constructions or precolonial values?. In W.O. Lee, D. L. Grossman, K. J. Kennedy, and G. P. Fairbrother (Eds.), Citizenship Education in Asia and the Pacific: Concepts and Issues (289-301). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Textbook (author)
Brady, L., & Kennedy, K. J. (2009). Celebrating Student Achievement : Assessment and Reporting (3rd Ed.). Sydney, Australia: Pearson Education Australia.
Edited book (editor)
Kennedy, K. J., Pavlova, M., & Lee, J. C.-K. (2022). Soft skills and hard values: Meeting education's 21st century challenges. London, United Kingdom: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003219415
Kennedy, K. (Ed.). (2022). Social Studies Education in South and South East Asian Contexts. London & New York: Routledge.
Trevino, E., Carrasco, D., Claes, E. & Kennedy, K.. (Eds.) (in press) (2022). Good Citizenship for the Next Generation - A Global Perspective Using IEA ICCS 2016 Data. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
Kuang, X., Zhu, J. & Kennedy, K. (Eds.) (2021). Civic Learning for Alienated, Disaffected and Disadvantaged Students - Barriers, Issues and Lessons. London & New York: Routledge.
Kennedy, K. (Ed.) (2021). Social Studies Education in East Asian Contexts. London and New York: Routledge.
Halse, C. & Kennedy, K. (Eds.) (2021). The future of multiculturalism in turbulent times. London & New York: Routledge.
Kennedy, K. J., & Lee, J. C. K. (Eds.). (2020). Religious Education in Asia: Spiritual Diversity in Globalized Times. Abingdon, Oxon; London, New York: Routledge.
K. Kennedy and J.C.K Lee (Eds.). (2018). Handbook of Schools and Schooling in Asia. London and New York: Routledge.
Krzywosz-Rynkiewicx B., Zalweska, A. & Kennedy, K. (Eds.). (2018). Young People and Active Citizenship in Post-Soviet Times: A Challenge for Citizenship Education. New York & London: Routledge.
John Chi-Kin Lee and Kerry J Kennedy (Eds.) (2017). Theorizing Teaching and Learning in Asia and Europe – A Conversation between Chinese Curriculum and European Didactics. London and New York: Routledge.
K. Kennedy, & A. Brunold (2016). Regional Contexts for Citizenship Education in Asia and Europe. New York: Routledge.
Kennedy, K.J., Fairbrother, G.P., & Zhao, Z. (Eds.) (2014). Citizenship Education in China: Preparing Citizens for the “Chinese Century”. London: Routledge.
Kennedy, K. J., Lee, W. O., & Grossman, D (Eds.) (2010). Citizenship Pedagogies in Asia and the Pacific. Hong Kong and Dordrecht: Comparative Education Research Centre, University of Hong Kong.
David Grossman, LEE Wing On, Kerry J Kennedy (Eds.) (2008). Citizenship Curriculum in Asia and the Pacific. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

Journal Publications
Publication in refereed journal
Kennedy, K. J., Gube, J. C., & Bhowmik, M. K. (2023). Identities in troubled times: Minoritized youth in Hong Kong’s “summer of protest”. Societies, 13(10) https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13100217
Bhowmik, M. K., Kennedy, K. J., Chan, A. H., & Gube, J. C. C. (2023). “Heroes and villains”: Media constructions of minoritized groups in Hong Kong’s season of discontent. Journal of Asian and African Studies https://doi.org/10.1177/00219096231192326
Muyambo-Goto, O., Naidoo, D., & Kennedy, K.J. (2023). Students’ Conceptions of 21st Century Education in Zimbabwe. Interchange, 54, 49-80. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10780-022-09483-3
Wang, Y., & Kennedy, K.J. (2023). Regime-supporting or regime-challenging? Chinese secondary students’ intentions for future political participation. Citizenship Teaching & Learning, 18(1), 7-22. https://doi.org/10.1386/ctl_00107_1
Kennedy, K.J., & Robinson, D. (2023). Curriculum as policy text: Shifting the gaze of South African curriculum implementation research. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 55(1), 105-118. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220272.2023.2172692
Bhowmik, M. K., Kennedy, K. J., Gube, J. C. C. (2023). Minoritised communities and Hong Kong’s ‘summer of uprising’: Attitudes and engagement without citizenship. Asian Ethnicity, 24(2), 199-220. https://doi.org/10.1080/14631369.2022.2120455
Wong, K. L., Lee, C. K. J., Kennedy, K. J. (2022). School Leadership for Civic Learning: The Case of Socio-Political Turbulence in Hong Kong. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 50(3), 511-530.
Kennedy, K. (2022). A curriculum field in need of an Australian foundation: Beyond theory to situated practice. Curriculum Perspectives, 42, 65-70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41297-022-00158-8
Kennedy, K. (2021). Review of the book Curriculum making in Europe: Policy and practice within and across diverse contexts, edited by M. Priestley, D. Alvunger, S. Philippou and T. Soini. Curriculum Perspectives, 41(2), 259–260. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41297-021-00144-6
Wong, K.L., Haste, H., Lee, C, K, J., Kennedy, K, J., & Chan, K, S, J. (2021). A Proposed Model for Teachers’ Perceptions of National and Moral Education: A National Identity Building Curriculum in Post-Colonial Hong Kong. Journal of Educational Change, 22(2), 221-246.
Kuang, X. & Kennedy, K. (2021). Alienated and disaffected students: Exploring the civic capacity of ‘Outsiders’ in Latin America. Education Citizenship and Social Justice, 16 (1), 49-61.
Hui, S.K.F., Cheung, H.Y., & Kennedy, K.J. (2020). A critical review of the development of generic learning outcomes: How engaging is the New Senior Secondary (NSS) curriculum reform in Hong Kong. Journal of Education and Human Development, 9(4), 67-84. https://doi.org/10.15640/jehd.v9n4a8
Cheung, C. H. W., Lee, J. C. K., Kennedy, K. J., & Kuang, X. (2020). Adolescent religious engagement and democracy: a comparison of student attitudes in Hong Kong and South Korea. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, n.a., 1-18.
Kuang, X and Kennedy, K. (2020). Hong Kong adolescents’ future civic engagement: Do protest activities count?. Compare - A Journal of Comparative Education,, 50(3), 428-446.
Kuang, X., Zhu, J. & Kennedy, K. (2020). Civic learning for alienated, disaffected and disadvantaged students: Measurement, theory and practice. Educational Psychology, 40 (1), 141-145.
Kennedy, K. (2019). The idea of a national curriculum in Australia: What do Susan Ryan, John Dawkins and Julia Gillard have in common?. Curriculum Perspectives, 39(2), 117-124. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41297-019-00081-5
Kennedy, K.J., Wong, L.K.& Ng, H.Y. (2019). Being Asylum Seekers in Hong Kong: Institutions, Action and Power. Asian Journal of Social Science, 47(4-5), 534-565.
Ng, H.-Y., & Kennedy, K. J. (2019). Localist groups and populist radical regionalism in Hong Kong. China: An International Journal, 17(4), 111-134.
Kennedy, K. (2019). Review of the book Compassion and education: Cultivating compassionate children, schools and communities, by A. Peterson. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 39(2), 264-265. https://doi.org/10.1080/02188791.2019.1622279
Ng, H.Y., Kennedy, K.J., & Hue, M.T. (2019). What contributes to ethnic minorities’ identification with Hong Kong? The cases of South Asian and Filipino youth. Asian Ethnicity, 20(2), 228-249.
Wong, K.L., Lee, C K J., Chan, K.S.J. & Kennedy, K.J. (2019). Teacher self-efficacy in cultivating students to become ‘good citizens’: a Hong Kong case. Teacher Development, 23, 155-173.
Wong, P. M. D., Kennedy, K., & Yan, Z. (2019). Validation of a translated measurement scale to assess Chinese business students' orientation towards corporate social responsibility.. Journal of Education for Business, 94(7), 446-456.
Zhu, J., Kennedy, K., Mok, M., & Halse, C. (2019). Chinese Immigrant students in Hong Kong: Exploring performance and influences on their civic learning. PsyCh Journal., 8, 465-479.
Cheung Hin Wah Chris, Chong King Man Eric, Kennedy, Kerry John, Chow Chin Fung Philip (2018). The attitudes of Mainland Chinese secondary students towards democracy and equality: Being a young citizen in 21st century China.. Citizenship Teaching and Learning, 13.2, 209-225.
Kennedy, K.J., Li, L.J., & Ng, H.Y. (2018). The Development of Hong Kong Student’s Civic Attitudes under Chinese Sovereignty. Asian Education and Development Studies, 7(4), 382-394.
Zhu, J., Kennedy, K. J., Kuang, X., & Mok, M. M. C. (2018). Previous civic experience and Asian adolescents’ intention of participating in legal protest: Mediating role of self-efficacy and interest. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 38(3), 414-431.
Cheung, H. W., Kennedy, K. J., Leung, C. H., & Hue, M. T. (2018). Religious engagement and attitudes to the role of religion in society: Their effect on civic and social values in an Asian context.. British Journal of Religious Education., 40(2), 158-168.
Kuang, X., Kennedy, K. J., & Mok, M. M. C. (2018). Creating democratic classrooms in Asian contexts: The influences of individual and school level factors on open classroom climate. The Journal of Social Science Education, 17(1), 29-40.
Bhowmik, M. K., Kennedy, K. J., & Hue, M. T. (2018). Education for all – But not Hong Kong’s ethnic minority student. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 21(5), 661-679.
Chong, King Man, Eric, Kennedy, K. & Cheung, Hin Wah (2018). China – liberal economic power abroad, politically authoritarian at home. Citizenship Teaching and Learning, 13(2), 167-175.
Kuang, X. and Kennedy, K. (2018). Alienated and disaffected students: exploring the civic capacity of ‘Outsiders’ in Asian societies. Asia Pacific Education Review, 19(1), 111-135.
Bhowmik, M. K., & Kennedy, K. J. (2017). Caught between cultures: Case study of an 'out of school' ethnic minority student in Hong Kong. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 37(1), 69-85.
Li, L., Hallinger, P., Kennedy, K. J., & Walker, A. (2017). Mediating effects of trust, communication, collaboration on teacher professional learning in Hong Kong primary schools.. International Journal of Leadership in Education., 20(6), 687-716.
Wong, K. L., Lee, C. K. J., Chan, K. S. J., & Kennedy, K. J. (2017). The model of teachers’ perceptions of “good citizens”: Aligning with the changing conceptions of “good citizens”. Citizenship Teaching and Learning, 12(1), 43-66.
Wong, K.L.,Lee, C. K. J., Chan, K. S. J., & Kennedy, K. J (2017). Constructions of Civic Education: Hong Kong Teachers’ Perceptions of Moral, Civic and National education. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 17, 1-19.
Li, L., Kennedy, K. J., & Mok, M. M. C. (2016). Establishing a Parsimonious Model through Comparing Impact of Key Student and School Factors on Secondary School Value-added Effects. International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, 18(3), 162-183.
Bhowmik, M. and Kennedy, K. (2016). Caught between cultures: Case study of an 'out of school' ethnic minority student in Hong Kong. Asia PAcific Journal of Education DOI:10.1080/02188791.2016.1169991, x, xx-xx.
Cheung, H. W., Kennedy, K. J., Leung, C. H., & Hue, M. T. (2016). Religious engagement and attitudes to the role of religion in society: Their effect on civic and social values in an Asian context. The British Journal of Religious Education, ., 1-12.
Kennedy, K. J., & Li, L. (2016). Social learning and Asia’s high performance education systems: Is there an explanation for success. Frontier of Education in China., xx(x), xx-xxx.
Li, L.J. & Kennedy, K. (2016). Developing a composite indicator to measure civic participatory potential in two Chinese societies. Cogent Education, 3(1), 1-15.
Kennedy, K. J., Hue, M. T., & Bhowmik, M. (2015). Multicultural teaching in Hong Kong schools: Classroom assessment and learning motivation for ethnic minority students [Special issue] (http://dx.doi.org/10.18296/am.0004). Assessment Matters, 8, 53-75.
Wong, K. L., Lee, C. K. J., Kennedy, K. J., & Chan, K. S. J. (2015). Hong Kong Teachers’ Receptivity towards Moral, Civic and National Education. Citizenship Teaching and Learning, 10(3), 271-292.
Wong, K,L., Lee, C.K.J., Kennedy, K.J., & Chan, K.S.J. (2015). Hong Kong teachers’ receptivity towards civic education. Citizenship Teaching and Learning, 10(3), 271-292.
Hue, M. T., Leung, C. H., & Kennedy, K. J. (2015). Student perception of assessment practices: Towards 'no loser' classrooms for all students in ethnic minority schools in Hong Kong. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 27(3), 253-273.
Hue, M. T., & Kennedy, K. J. (2015). Promoting cultural responsiveness: Teachers’ constructs of an assessment classroom environment for ethnic minority students in Hong Kong secondary schools. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 21(4), 289-304.
J.K.F Chow & K. Kennedy (2015). Asian students’ conceptions of future civic engagement: Comparing clusters using person-centered analysis. Research in Comparative and International Education, 10(1), 7-22.
Kennedy, K., Hue, M. T., & Bhowmik, M. K. (2015). Multicultural teaching in Hong Kong schools: Classroom assessment and learning motivation for ethnic minority students. Assessment Matters, 8, 53-75.
X. Kuang and K. Kennedy (2014). Asian students’ perceptions of ‘good’ citizenship: The role of democratic values and attitudes to traditional culture. Asia Pacific Journal of Educational Development, 3, 33-42.
Hue, M. T., & Kennedy, J. K. (2014). Creating culturally responsive environments: Ethnic minority teachers' constructs of the cultural diversity in Hong Kong secondary schools. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 34(3), 273-287.
Kennedy, K. J., Li, L., & Chan, K. (2014). Asian students and school participation: Developing citizenship skills for the future. Politics, Culture and Socialization, 5(2), 195-214.
Chow, J.K.F. & Kennedy, K. (2014). Secondary analysis of large-scale assessment data: An alternative to variable-centred analysis.. Educational Research and Evaluation, 20(6), 469-493.
Hue, M. T., & Kennedy, K. J. (2014). The challenge of promoting ethnic minority education and cultural diversity in Hong Kong schools: From policy to practice. Revista Española de Educación Comparada, 23(1), 117-134.
Hue, M. T., & Kennedy, K. J. (2013). Building a connected classroom: Teachers' narratives about managing the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students in Hong Kong secondary schools. Pastoral Care in Education, 31(4), 292-308.
Lee, W. O., Kennedy, K. J., & Mok, M. M. C. (2013). Editorial: Civic learning and its contexts.. Special Issue: Psychology of Civic Learning. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Expermental Educational Psychology, 33(3), 233-239.
Bhowmik, M. K., & Kennedy, K. J. (2013). Equitable educational provision for Hong Kong’s ethnic minority students: Issues and priorities. Educational Research Journal, 27(1 & 2), 27-49.
Kennedy, K., Kuang, X. and Chow, J.K.F. (2013). Exploring Asian students’ citizenship values and their relationship to civic knowledge and school participation. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 33(3), 240-261.
Kennedy, K. (2012). The 'No Loser' principle in Hong Kong's education reform: Does it apply to ethnic minority students?. Hong Kong Teachers' Centre Journal, 11, 1-23.
M.K Bhowmik & K.J.Kennedy (2012). Equitable Educational Provision for Hong Kong's Ethnic Minority Students: Issues and Priorities. Educational Research Journal, 27, 27-51.
Hue, M. T., & Kennedy, K. J. (2012). Creation of culturally responsive classrooms: Teachers’ conceptualization of a new rationale for cultural responsiveness and management of diversity in Hong Kong secondary schools. Intercultural Education, 23(2), 119-132.
Kennedy, K.J. (2012). Asian students’ citizenship values and their relationship to civic understanding: An exploratory study comparing Thai and Hong Kong students. Research in Comparative and International Education, 7(2), 248-259.
Kennedy, K.J. (2012). Global trends in civic and citizenship education: What are the lessons for nation states?. Education Sciences, 2(3), 121-135.
Brown, G.T.L., Hui, S.K.F., Yu, W.M., & Kennedy, K.J. (2011). Teachers' conceptions of assessment in Chinese contexts: A tripartite model of accountability, improvement, and irrelevance. International Journal of Educational Research, 50(5-6), 307-320.
Fairbrother, G. P. & Kennedy, K. J. (2011). Civic education curriculum reform in Hong Kong: What should be the direction under Chinese sovereignty?. Cambridge Journal of Education, 41(4), 425-443.
Kennedy, K. J., & Hue, M. T. (2011). Researching ethnic minority students in a Chinese context: Mixed methods design for cross cultural understandings. Comparative Education, 47(3), 343-354.
Kennedy, K. (2011). Teachers as active citizens - can teacher education prepare them?. Teacher Education and Practice, 24, 348-350.
Kennedy, K.J. (2011). Teacher quality and its cultural contexts: What can the West learn from the East?. Journal of Research, Policy & Practice of Teachers & Teacher Education, 1(1), 8-15.
高凌飈, 甘國臻 (2011)。 中國內地教師的考評觀: 類型,特點與啟示。 教育學報,第7卷 (第1期),39-47。
Kennedy, K. J., Huang, X. & Chow, J.K.F. (2011). Hong Kong students’ levels of political trust ten years after the return to Chinese sovereignty. The Journal of Social Science Education, 11(1), 23-46.
Kennedy, K.J. (2011). Transformational issues in curriculum reform: Perspectives from Hong Kong. Journal of Textbook Research 教科書研究, 4, 87-113.
Kennedy, K. J., Chan, J. K. S. and Fok, P. K. (2011). Holding policy makers to account: Exploring ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ policy and the implications for curriculum reform.. London Review of Education, 9(1), 41-54.
Mok, M. M. C., Kennedy, K. J., & Moore, P. J. (2011). Academic attribution of secondary students: gender, year level and achievement level. Educational Psychology, 31(1), 87-104.
Fok, P. K., Kennedy, K. J. & Chan, K. S. J. (2010). Teachers, policymakers and project learning: The questionable use of "hard" and "soft" policy instruments to influence the implementation of curriculum reform in Hong Kong. International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership, 5(6), 1-14.
Kennedy, K. (2010). Conceptualizing quality improvement in higher education: Policy, theory and practice for outcomes based learning in Hong Kong.. Higher Education Research and Management, 33, 205-218.
陳健生、甘國臻、霍秉坤 (2010)。 「促進學習的評估」改革:學校的實施與挑戰。 課程研究,4(3),71-89。
Kennedy, K. J. (2010). Young citizens in Hong Kong: obedient, active and patriotic?. Social Psychology of Education, 13(1), 111-127.
霍秉坤、甘國臻、陳健生 (2010)。 「學校課程決定的基礎:政策制訂者對課程政策的理解」。 《教育政策論壇》,第十三卷第一期,頁143-176。
Tsui, K.T., & Kennedy, K.J. (2009). Evaluating the Chinese Version of the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (C-TSE): Translation Adequacy and Factorial Validity. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 18 (2), 245-260.
Brown, G. T. L., Kennedy, K. J., Fok, P. K., Chan, J. K. S., & Yu, W. M. (2009). Assessment for improvement: Understanding Hong Kong teachers' conceptions and practices of assessment. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 16(3), 347-363.
Tsui, K. T., & Kennedy, K. J. (2009). Evaluating Chinese teacher sense of efficacy scale (C-TSE): Translation adequacy and factor structure. Asia Pacific Educational Researcher, 18(2), 245-260.
Kennedy, K. J., & Chow, J. K. F. (2009). Adolescents' attitudes to law and law-related issues: The case of Hong Kong students. Citizenship, Economics and Social Education: An International Journal, 8(2), 82-94.
Kennedy, K. J. (2009). The idea of a national curriculum in Australia: What do Susan Ryan, John Dawkins and Julia Gillard have in common?. Curriculum Perspectives, 29 (1), 1-9.
Kennedy, K. J., Chan, K. S. J., Fok, P. K., & Yu, W. M. (2008). Forms of assessment and their potential for enhancing learning: Conceptual and cultural issues. Educational Research for Policy and Practice, 7 (3), 197-207.
Mok, M. M. C., Kennedy, K. J., Moore, P. J., Shan, W. P., & Leung, S. O. (2008). The use of help-seeking by Chinese secondary school students: Challenging the myth of "The Chinese learner". Evaluation and Research in Education, 21 (3), 188-213.
Kennedy, K. J., Hahn, C. L., & Lee, W. O. (2007). Constructing citizenship: Comparing the views of students in Australia, Hong Kong and the United States. Comparative Education Review, 52 (1), 53-91.
Kennedy, K. J. (2007). Student constructions of 'active citizenship': What does participation mean to students?. British Journal of Educational Studies, 55 (3), 304-324.
Law, E. H. F., Joughin, G., Kennedy, K. J., Tse, H. K. H., & Yu, W. M. (2007). Teacher educators' pedagogical principles and practices: Hong Kong perspectives. Teaching in Higher Education, 12 (2), 247-261.
Lee, W. O., & Kennedy, K. J. (2006). Citizenship education in Asia: Diversity, tradition and challenges for new times. Citizenship Teaching and Leaning, 2 (2), 3-7.
Mok, M. M. C., Cheng, Y. C., Moore, P., & Kennedy, K. (2006). The development and validation of the self-directed learning scale (SLS). Journal of Applied Measurement, 7 (4), 418-449.
Kennedy, K.J., & Hui, S.K.F. (2006). Developing teacher leaders to facilitate Hong Kong's curriculum reforms: Self-efficacy as a measure of teacher growth. International Journal of Education Reform, 15(1), 114-128.
Kennedy, K. J., Lo, Y. C., & Fairbrother, G. P. (2006). Directions for the future of schooling in Hong Kong: Vision and reality in a post-colonial society. International Journal of Educational Research, 41 (7-8), 534-541.
Law, H. F. E., Joughin, G. R., Kennedy, K. J., Tse, H., & Yu, W. M. (2006). Teacher educators' pedagogical principles and practices: Hong Kong perspectives. Teaching in Higher Education, 12 (2), 247-261.
Kennedy, K. J., & Mellor, S. (2006). Australian students' civic attitudes towards institutions supporting social capital. Educational Psychology, 26 (2), 251-272.
Kennedy, K. J., Fok, P. K., & Chan, K. S. J. (2006). Reforming the curriculum in a post-colonial society: The case of Hong Kong. Planning and Changing, 37 (1&2), 111-130.
Kennedy, K. J. (2005). Conceptions of freedom in the neo-conservative state: Challenges for political socialisation and civic education. Pacific-Asian Education, 17 (2), 8-19.
Halse, C., Kennedy, K. J., & Cogan, J. J. (2005). The future direction of schooling. International Journal of Educational Research, 41 (7-8), 584-594.
Kennedy, K. J., & Cogan, J. (2005). Schooling for the future in Asia-Pacific societies: Six Cases. International Journal of Educational Research, 41 (7-8), 503-511.
Kennedy, K. J., Lo, Y. C., & Fairbrother, G. P. (2005). Directions for the future of schooling in Hong Kong: Vision and reality in a post-colonial society. International Journal of Educational Research, 41 (2004), 534-542.
Publication in policy or professional journal
Kennedy, K. J. (2009). What if we had...a national curriculum. EQ Australia, pp. 10-11.
Kennedy, K. J. (2005). Student attitudes to minority groups in 28 countries: What does it mean to be tolerant?. Comparative Education Bulletin, 8, 36-42.

Conference Papers
Invited conference paper
Kennedy, K.J., & Wong, K.L. (2018, November). ‘Leading for Civic Learning’: School Leaders and the Creation of Democratic Citizens. The 19th UNESCO-APEID International Conference, Effective School Leadership for the 21st Century: Meeting the Sustainable Development Goals, Thailand.
Kennedy, K., Hue, M. T., Bhowmik, M., & Ng, H. Y. (2017, June). Intersectionality and identity in an Asian context: The case of Pakistani youth in Hong Kong. Paper presented at the CiCea / Jean Monnet Network 2017 Conference “Reaffirming Citizenship Education in an Uncertain World”, Brugge, Belgium, Germany.
Kennedy, K. (2016, May). Hong Kong’s Civic Education in Challenging Times. Invited Paper for a Research Seminar sponsored by the Institute for Guangdong, Hong Kong Macao and Hong Kong Development Studies, University of Sun Yat Sen, Guangzhou, China.
Kennedy, K. (2015, November). Putting the sustainable development goals to work: An agenda for basic quality education and global equity. Key Note Address, Korean Education Development Institute (KEDI) International Forum, 24 November, Seoul.
Kennedy, K. (2015, May). “Changing schools for changing times”: Curriculum lessons from Hong Kong for SEAMEO’s Basic Standards.. Invited Paper, South East Asia Basic Education Standards (SEA-BES) Worksop, Penang.
Kennedy, K. (2014, December). Schools and classrooms as incubators of civic learning. Invited Paper, Harvard Shanghai Symposium, Shanghai Harvard Centre, Shanghai.
Kennedy, K. (2014, June). The “Citizenship Industry” and Student Identities: Is there an Alternative to State-Focussed Citizenship Education?. Key Note Address,16th Annual Meeting of Children's Identity and Citizeship in Europe Network Conference, Olsztyn, Poland.
Kennedy, K.J. (2014, June). Education Matters: Learning and Skills for Economic and Social Development. KeyNote Address, Asia-Europe Meeting - The Way Forward, Singapore, 5-6 June.
Kennedy, K.J., & Chow, K.F. (2014, March). Becoming a Green Citizen in the Twenty First Century. Keynote Address, 2nd Step Up Educators Conference, ' Education Beyond Borders’, Ateneo De Manila University, 10 August 2013., Manila.
Kennedy, K.J. (2013, December). Becoming Radical: Changing Adolescent Attitudes to Democracy and Civic Engagement in Hong Kong,. Invited Paper, International Seminar: Global Citizenship Curriculum in Higher Education: Evolving Policy and Practice and a Future Research Agenda, 8 December, Hong Kong.
Kennedy, K.J (2013, November). Creating Conditions for Learning in Asia and the Pacific. Keynote Address, UNESCO Regional High Level Expert Meeting , November 16-19, Bangkok.
Kennedy, K.J. (2013, September). Australia’s Engagement with Asia: But which Asia?. Keynote Address, Biennial Conference of the Australian Curriculum Studies Association, 25-27 September, Darwin, Australia.
Kennedy, K. (2013, June). High stakes school based assessment and cultural values: Beyond issues of validity. Key Note Address,. Cambridge Horizons Seminar,, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Kennedy, K. (2013, June). School structure and teacher competence, duties and character: issues, challenges and the way forward-Regional View,Key Note Address. Regional Conference on School Structure and Teacher Competence, Duties & Character, Bangi, Malaysia.
Kennedy, K.J. (2013, June). Creating Conditions for Learning in Asia and the Pacific. Keynote Address, UNESCO Regional High Level Expert Meeting , November 16-19, Bangkok.
Kennedy, K. (2012, November). Learning from large scale international assessments: Benefits of secondary analysis for research and policy. Keynote Address presented at the International Forum on Academic Measurement and Evaluation, East China Normal University, Shanghai.
Kennedy, K.J. (2012, February). Towards an Asia-Europe Education Dialogue: Learning Communities for the Future. Seminar on Teacher Education Policy sponsored by the European Network of Educational Research on Citizenship Education. 14-17 February., University of Granada.
Kennedy, K.J. (2011, November). The ‘No Loser’ Principle in Hong Kong's Education Reform: Does it Apply to Ethnic Minority Students?. Invited Key Note Address, C&I Conference 2011, Curriculum Matters: Policy, Implementation and Sustainability, Hong Kong Institute of Education, 19 November, Hong Kong.
Kennedy, K.J. (2011, May). Is there an ‘Asian’ Perspective on Citizenship? Learning from the International Civics and Citizenship Study, 12-15 May. Keynote Address, International CitizEd Conference, Emory University, Atlanta, GA,.
Kerry J Kennedy (2011, February). Beyond The Civic Education Classroom: Schools and the Community As Sites For Engaging Students In ‘Real World’ Civic Learning, 14-17 February. Invited Paper, International Conference on School and Community Interaction (SCI), Augsburg, Germany.
Kerry J Kennedy (2010, November). Transformational Ideas for Curriculum Reform – Hong Kong Perspectives. 5- 6 November. Keynote Address, International Conference , “2010 Issues of Curriculum Transformation under the Context of Curriculum Reform in East Asia”, Taipei.
Kerry J Kennedy (2010, September). Teaching Practices in Civic Education: A Comparison of Selected National Perspectives and the Views of Hong Kong Teachers, 23-26 September. Key Note Address, Conference on Evaluating Teaching Practices for Citizenship Education, Hiroshima and Tokyo.
Kennedy, K. J. (2010, June). Teacher Quality and its Cultural Contexts: What Can the West Learn from the East?. Keynote Address, International Conference on Teacher Education, Taipei, Taiwan.
Kennedy, K. J. (2010, May). Chinese Perspectives on Social Justice: Sufficiency versus Equality. Keynote Address, 34th Annual Conference of the Pacific Circle Consortium 'Transformative Education: From Vision to Action', Southern Oregon University, Ashland, Oregon, USA.
Kennedy, K. J. (2010, February). Redesigning the Secondary School Curriculum to Meet the Needs of Knowledge Societies: Diverse Learning, Value Adding Skills and Engaged Students. Invited Paper presented at the Ministerial Symposium, "Secondary Education - Experiences and New Directions", Dubai.
Kennedy, K. J. (2009, September). Creating a Citizenship Curriculum: What do we Know about the Way Students Learn to be Citizens?. Keynote Address, International Conference on Educational Research, Khon Kaen University, Thailand.
Kennedy, K. J. (2009, May). School based curriculum development: Catering for the needs of all students. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Association for Childhood Education International, Taipei, Taiwan.
Kennedy, K. J. (2008, December). The idea of a national curriculum in Australia: What do Susan Ryan, John Dawkins and Julia Gillard have in common?. Paper presented at the Symposium on National Curriculum, Sydney, Australia.
Kennedy, K. J. (2008, September). Student conceptions of the 'Good citizen': Implications for school and classroom organization. Paper presented at the International Seminar: "Sharing Responsibilities and Networking Through the School Process", Seville.
Kennedy, K. J. (2008, July). Multiple methods as "Ways of knowing": What we can learn about democracy and patriotism from citizenship education research. Paper presented at the CitizEd International Conference: "Researching Citizenship Education: Principles, Policies and Practice", UK.
Mok, M. M. C. (2006, October). Assessment reform and self-directed learning: theory and practice. Keynote presentation to Assessment Theory and Practice Conference, 14 October 2006, Macau: DSEJ. (In Chinese: 莫慕貞(2006年10月), “評估改革及自我主動學習:理論與實踐”, 研討會主講者「學生評核的理論與實踐」研討會主講者。2006年10月14日澳門特別行政區, 教育暨青年局。), 澳門.
Mok, M. M. C., Cheng, Y. C., Moore, P. J., & Kennedy, K. J. (2006, September). Self-directed Learning: Challenging secondary students for excellence in education. Invited Paper presented to Ting Ka Ping Principals Conference, 17-21 September 2006, Canton South China Normal University. (In Chinese: 莫慕貞,鄭燕祥,莫雅立,甘國臻 (2006年9月). 自我主導學習: 激發中學生追求卓越, 全國田家炳中學校長論壇 2006, 2006年9月17日至21日, 廣東省廣州市, 華南師範大學.), 廣州市.
Kennedy, K. J. (2006, June). "Making the numbers dance": A reconsideration of the "New gender gap in civic education and the implications for classrooms. Keynote speech presented at Challenges and Possible in Gender Equity Education: The 2nd International Conference in the Asia Pacific Region, Hong Kong.
Mok, M. M. C., Cheng, Y. C., Moore, P. J., & Kennedy, K. J. (2006, March). Self-Directed Learning of Secondary Students. Invited paper presented to the Second Principals’ Conference 2006: Beyond Dilemmas, held by Asia Pacific Centre for Educational Leadership and School Quality, 31 March, at The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong.
Kennedy, K. J. (2005, July). Reframing civic education for new citizenships: The civic needs of "one country, two systems". Keynote speech presented at the International Seminar "New Schooling and Citizenship Practice", Granada.
Refereed conference paper
Bhowmik, M. K., Kennedy, K. J., Chan, A. H. T., & Gube, J. C. C. (2022, May). Media constructions of minoritized youth in Hong Kong’s protests. Paper presented at the Korean Association for Multicultural Education (KAME) International Conference, Seoul National University, Korea.
Wong, K.L., Kennedy, K. J. Chan, K.K., (2022, May). A Comparative Study on Teachers and Principals’ Perceptions of Citizenship Education in Time of Stress: Hong Kong Case. CitEdEV, Prague, Czech Republic.
Bhowmik, M.K., Chung, S. K., Kennedy, K. J., Gube, J. C. C., Hue, M.T., & Chau, C. F. W. (2021, June). The Attitudes of Hong Kong’s Minoritized Communities to the Recent Social Movement and the Implications for Education. Paper presented at the Third Annual Civic Education Conference, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia and Universitas Negeri Manado, Indonesia.
Wong, K. L., Lee, C. K. J., Kennedy, K. J. (2021, April). Schools and Citizenship Education in Hong Kong: Teachers’ and Principals’ Perceptions in Times of Stress. AERA, USA.
Bhowmik, M. K., Kennedy, K. J., & Gube, J. C. C. (2020, May). Engagement of ethnic minorities in Hong Kong’s current protests. 22nd Annual Children's Identity and Citizenship European Association (CiCea) / 16th Annual CitizED and 3rd joint CiCea/CitizED Conference 2020, York, UK.
Kennedy, K.J., Zhu, J. & Pavlova, M. (2019, July). Immigrant Status and Students’ Civic Achievement in the Russian Federation Are Immigrant Students Disadvantaged?. The XV1th Conference of the European Congress of Psychology, Moscow, Russia.
Chan, K.K., & Kennedy, K.J. (2019, May). Online Participation, Civic Engagement and Identity of Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong. Paper presented at 21st CiCea International Conference, Prague, Czech Republic.
Wong, K, L., Lee, C. K. J., & Kennedy, K.J. (2019, May). An analysis of the role of Hong Kong School Principals in Supporting the Teaching of Civic Education.. 21th Annual Children’s Identity and Citizenship European Association Conference, Prague, Czech Republic.
K. Kennedy and NG, Hoi Yu (2018, June). Radical civic engagement: Motivations, strategies and outcomes. 20th CiCea International Conference & 2nd Joint Conference with CitizED : Citizenship & Identity in a 'Post-Truth' World, Warsaw, Poland, May 10-12.
K. Kennedy (2018, May). Multiculturalism in retreat: The need for valuing diversity in troubling times. International Conference of the Korean Association of Multicultural Education, Seoul, Korea, 23-25 May.
Cheung, H. W., Kennedy, K. and C. F. Chow (2018, April). The influence of religious engagement on Hong Kong and Taiwanese students’ expected future civic participation. Paper resented at the 12th Anniversary Conference of the Asia-Pacific Network for Moral Education (APNME, Kaohsiung, Taiwan April 26-30.
Bhowmik, M. K., Kennedy, K. J., Hue, M. T., & Ng, H. Y. (2017, November). Identities of Hong Kong’s ethnic minority youth: A socioecological perspective. Paper presented at the WERA Focal Meeting & HKERA International Conference 2017 (WERA-HKERA 2017): Innovation, Reform and Education Change in a Contemporary World, Hong Kong, China.
Cheung, H. W. C., Kennedy, K. J., Hue, M. T., & Leung, C. H. (2017, November). The influence of religious education on Hong Kong & Taiwanese students’ civic and social values development. Paper presented at the WERA Focal Meeting & HKERA International Conference 2017 (WERA-HKERA 2017): Innovation, Reform and Education Change in a Contemporary World, Hong Kong, China.
Kennedy, K., Hue, M. T., & Bhowmik, M. (2017, July). Self-efficacy and pan ethnic identity: The role of resilience in coping with minority status.. Paper presented at the European Congress of Psychology, Amsterdam, Holland.
Kuang, X., Kennedy, K. J., & Mok, M. M. C. (2017, June). Creating democratic classrooms in Asian contexts: The effects of open classroom climate on student learning and possible school facilitating conditions. 13th Citized International Conference 29 June - 1 July 2017, Korea National Sport University, Seoul, Korea.
Li, L., Chiu, M. M., Kennedy, K. J., & Mok, M. C. M. (2017, March). Civic learning in Hong Kong: Starting from schools. Paper presented at The Asia Leadership Roundtable 2017: Seven years on: The state of the Asian knowledge base?, Taipei.
1. Li, L.J., Kennedy, K., Alviar, T., Ng, H.Y & Wang, Y. (2016, December). Changes in Hong Kong students’ civic values and behaviours from 1999 to 2009: Do civic trust and national attitudes make differences?. Hong Kong & Macao SAR Youth: Identity, Citizenship Education and Civic Participation Conference, Hong.
Kwok, W. S., Mok, M. M. C., & Kennedy, K. J. (2016, December). The association between classroom openness, citizenship self-efficacy and adolescents’ civic behaviour: The Hong Kong case. Hong Kong & Macao SAR Youth: Identity, Citizenship Education and Civic Participation Conference, Hong Kong.
Wong, K. L., Lee, C. K. J., Kennedy, K. J., & Chan, K. S. J. (2016, December). Hong Kong Teachers’ Perceptions of “Participations in Protests” as a Characteristics of “good citizen”. Paper presented at Association for Moral Education, Harvard Graduate School of Education, MA, USA.
Kennedy, K. (2016, April). The policy and institutional environment for Hong Kong’s refugees.. Paper presented as part of the Panel, Refugee Issues in Hong Kong and their Implications for the Development of a Multicultural Society, at the Annual Conference of the Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong, April 15-16, Hong Kong.
Li, L.J., Huang, X. & Kennedy, K. (2016, April). “Birds of a feather get together”: Hong Kong and Taiwanese adolescents’ aspirations for illegal protest. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong, 15-16 April, Hong Kong.
Kennedy, K. & Chan, K.K. (2015, September). Immigration, ethnicity and Hong Kong’s unacknowledged multiculturalism.. CiCea /CiCe Jean Monnet Network Conference, 3-5 September, Corinth.
Kennedy, K. (2015, July). Transforming cultural identity in a monocultural environment. 14th European Congess of Psychology, 7-10 July, Milan.
Kennedy, K,, Li, L. & Cheung, H.W. (2015, June). Civic identity profiling: A comparative study of Hong Kong and Taiwan youth.. 11th International CitizED Conference, June 2-4, Singapore.
Wong, S., Cheng, R. W-Y., Chu, W. C-W, Kennedy, K., Wang, D., and Cheng, S-T. (2015, June). The gender difference in the decision-making ability of adolescents: an fMRI study. 21st Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Honolulu, United States.
Zhao, Z., Li, L., & Kennedy, K. J. (2015, June). Paths to citizenship: An agenda for cross-society investigations.. Paper presented at the joint conference of 11th International CitizED Conference and the Arts, Humanities and Literature Conference 2015: Redesigning pedagogy: Leaders, values and citizenship in 21st century education. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
Li, L. & Kennedy, K. (2015, May). Leadership for civic learning in Hong Kong: The role of school and community.. 2nd Annual Conference Reciprocal Learning & Symbiotic Relationships in School Development, East China Normal University, Shanghai.
Bhowmik, M., Kennedy, K. & Lai. A. (2015, February). The international context for the study of refugees: Implications for a refugee research agenda in Hong Kong.. Annual Conference of the Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Lai, A., Kennedy, K. & Bhowmik, M. (2015, January). Hong Kong’s democratic aspirations and the issue of refugees: Why a refugee policy is needed. 11th International CitizEd Conference, Singapore, June 2-4.. 11th International CitizEd Conference, Singapore.
Li, H., Wong, K. L. L., Bhowmik, M., Kennedy, K. J., & Lai, P. Y. A. (2015, January). Hong Kong perspectives on citizenship education: Learning from the past to create a democratic future. Paper presented at the Redesigning Pedagogy: Leaders, Values and Citizenship in 21st Century Education, held in conjunction with. 11th International CitizED Conference and the Arts, Humanities and Literature Conference, Singapore.
K. Kennedy., LI, Lijuan & Chan, K. (2014, November). Hong Kong students and school participation - Developing citizenship knowledge for the future.. Paper presented at the Annual International Conferenc e of the Asia Pacific Educational Research Association, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Kennedy, K., Li, Lijuan & Chan, K.K. (2014, November). Civic identity and youth engagement. Paper presented at the Annual International Conference of. Asia Pacific Educational Research Association, 19-21 November, Hong Kong.
Yuen, Y. M. C., Cheung, A., .Kennedy, K., & Leung, Y.W. (2014, November). Engagement of Immigrant Youth in Hong Kong: Addressing the Policy Gap. Asia Pacific Educational Research Association 2014, Hong Kong.
Kennedy, K. (2014, July). Standards for citizenship education: Can we define agreed learning outcomes for all students?. Paper prepared for the 10th International CitizED Conference, University of Birmingham, 17-19 July., Birmingham.
Kennedy, K. & Chan, K.K. (2014, July). Creating democratic learning environments in an Asian context.. International Congess of Applied Psychology, 8-13 July, Paris.
Kennedy, K.J. (2014, January). Thai students talk about citizenship responsibilities: What the ICCS 2009 surrey didn't tell us.. International Conference: Conducting Cross-Cultural and Cross-National Research in International Settings, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, 15-17 January.
Kennedy, K.J., & Hui, S.K.F. (2013, October). New skills for new times: A case study report on the transformation of learning in Hong Kong’s education system. UNESCO’s 2013 Annual ERI-Net Meeting, "Transition to a better and higher learning", Bangkok, Thailand..
Kennedy, K.J. (2013, July). Adolescent Political Development: Political Socialization and its Cultural and Political Contexts. Paper presented at the 13th European Congress of Psychology, July 9-12, Stockholm.
Yuen, Y. M. C., Cheung, A., Kennedy, K., & Leung, Y. W. (2013, July). Economic background, spiritual well-beig and life satisfaction of adolescents among diverse culture in Hong Kong. Paper presented at the Fourth European Network for Social and Emotional Competence Conference (ENSEC), Zagreb: Croatia.
Yuen, Y. M. C., Cheung, A., Kennedy, K., & Leung, Y. W. (2013, July). The engagement of minority and immigrant adolescents with school and civil society in Hong Kong. Paper presented at Congresso Internacional Envolvimento dos Alunos na Escola (CIEAE), Portugal: Lisboa.
Yuen, Y. M. C., Cheung, A., Kennedy, K., & Leung, Y. W. (2013, July). The engagement of school and civic society of minority and immigrant adolescents in Hong Kong. Paper presented at the Fourth European Network for Social and Emotional Competence Conference (ENSEC), Zagreb: Croatia.
Chow J.K.F. & Kennedy, K. (2013, June). The ‘Civic Potential’ of students: An investigation of students’ civic knowledge and conceptions of active citizenship in five Asian societies. The IEA International Research Conference 2013, Singapore.
Wong, S., Cheng, R. W, Chu, W. C., Kennedy, K., Wang, D. & Cheng, S-T (2013, June). Neural mechanism of the undermining effect in adolescents. The 19th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Seattle, USA.
Zhu, J., Kuang, X., Kennedy, K. J., & Mok, M. M. C. (2013, June). Predictors of Asian adolescents’expected future legal protest participation: A multidimensional Rasch modelling and path analysis.. IEA International Research Conference, 26-28 June, NIE, Singapore.
Hermes, L., Cherednichenko, B., Kennedy, K. & Yasuyuki , I. (2012, December). Improving education practice and international understanding through transnational benchmarking: New knowledge from four universities across three continents.. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education,, Sydney.
Kennedy, K., Yasuyuki, I., Cherednichenko, B. & Hermes, L. (2012, December). Transnational benchmarking of teacher education : Processes, outcomes and lessons.. Paper presented at the 3rd East Asian International Conference on Teacher Education Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai.
Kennedy, K. (2012, November). Multidisciplinary perspectives on learning: Understanding potential, utilizing contexts, improving outcomes.. Invited Paper presented at the UNESCO Expert Meeting: ‘Beyond 2015 - Rethinking Learning in a Changing World’, Bangkok.
Kennedy, K., Tsui, K.T., Huong, LT, Chang, G.C. (2012, November). Working together for educational change: a new approach to educational planning at the local level. Paper presented at the 16th UNESCO-APEID International Conference, Bangkok.
Lingbiao Gao , Kerry J Kennedy & Yang Wu (2012, July). The Chinese teachers’ conceptions of assessment – re-conceptualization and cross cultural comparison.. The 8th Conference of the International Test Commission, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Kennedy, K.J. (2012, May). ‘Partial’ citizenship: Social rights and ethnic minority students in Hong Kong. Paper presented at Eighth International CitizED Conference, 24 - 26 May, University of York., York.
Cheung, C.H.W., Kennedy, K.J. & Chow , J.K.F. (2012, February). A Comparative Study of Hong Kong and Taiwanese Students’ Attitudes Towards the Influence of Religion on Society and their Affect on Moral and Social Attitudes. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong, 25 February, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Cheung, Hin Wah, Kennedy, K.J. and Chow, J.K.F. (2011, July). Hong Kong students’ participation in and attitdes towards reigion: An exploratory analysis of the International civic and Citizenship Study. Paper presented at the International Conference on Moral Education, Nanjing, 24-28 October, Nanjing.
Oser, F & Kennedy, K.J. (2011, July). ICCS 2009 - An International Comparative Study of Civic Education. Paper presented at the International Conference on Moral Education, Nanjing, 24-28 October, Nanjing.
Chow, JKF & Kennedy, Kerry J (2011, March). Citizenship and Governance in the Asian Region: Insights from the International Civic And Citizenship Education Study (ICCS). International Conference on 'Governance and Citizenship in Asia: Paradigms and Practices', 18-19 March, Hong Kong.
Kerry J Kennedy, Xiaorui Huang and Joseph K.F Chow. (2011, February). Hong Kong students’ levels of political trust ten years after the return to Chinese sovereignty, 19 February 2011. Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Kerry J Kennedy (2010, December). Policy for Diversity in Hong Kong Schools: Policymakers Talk about Ethnic Minority Students. 2nd East Asian International Conference on Teacher Education Research,'Teacher Education for the Future - International Perspectives' 15 – 17 December, Hong Kong.
Kerry J Kennedy (2010, September). The International Civic and Citizenship Study: A comparison of Thai and Hong Kong students’ attitudes to citizenship issues and their influence on civic knowledge, 10-11 September. International Conference on Educational Research (ICER) 2010:‘Learning Communities for Sustainable Development’, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
Kerry J Kennedy (2010, July). Exploring students’ concepts of democracy: A comparison of Hong Kong and US adolescents, 2-4 July. International CitizEd Conference, St Andrews University, Scotland.
Adamson, B. & Kennedy, K. (2010, June). Pragmatic international transfer and outcomes-based curriculum design in Hong Kong. Paper presented at the Eighth Bulgarian Comparative Education Society Conference, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
Kennedy, K. J. (2010, March). Students' Concepts of Democracy: A Comparison of Hong Kong and Australian Adolescents. Paper presented at the 54th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Chicago, Illnois, USA.
Kennedy, K. J. (2010, January). Considering the meaning of assessment: Global and regional responses. Paper presented at the Symposium: Teachers' conceptions of assessment: Regional responses to global pressure to use assessment for learning. Annual Conference, Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong, Guangzhou, China.
Kennedy, K. J. (2009, April). 'Hybrid' multiculturalism? Ethnic minority student policy in Hong Kong. Paper presented at the Interactive Symposium, Policy, Action and Theory: Cross-Cultural Experience of Ethnic Minority Students in the United States, Canada, Australia and Hong Kong, San Diego.
Kennedy, K. J. (2008, July). Obligations and duties: Hong Kong students' conceptions of citizenship responsibilities. Paper presented at the 29th International Congress of Psychology, Berlin, Germany.
Kennedy, K. J., Chan, K. S. J., Yu, W. M. F., & Fok, P. K. (2008, April). Reflections on assessment on its cultural contexts: Why culture matters. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Teaching, Learning and Assessment, Hong Kong.
Kennedy, K. J. (2008, March). Policy, action and theory: Tensions in Hong Kong's response to educational provision for ethnic minority students. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association 2008, New York, USA.
Mok, M. M. C., Cheng, Y. C., Leung, S. O., Shan, P. W. J., Moore, P. J., & Kennedy, K. J. (2007, January). Self-directed learning in Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. Paper presented at the 20th Annual World Congress of the International Congress for School Effectiveness and Improvement, Symposium on School Initiative and Improvement for the Future: The Asia and Mid-East Perspectives, Slovenia.
Kennedy, K. J., Chan, J. K. S., & Fok, P. K. (2006, November). Theorizing curriculum policy implementation: The dimensions of 'soft' policy and their application to Hong Kong's reform agenda. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Asia-Pacific Educational Research Association International Conference, Hong Kong.
Chan, K. S. J., Kennedy, J. K., Yu, W. M., & Fok, P. K. (2006, May). Assessment policy in Hong Kong: Implementation issues for new forms of assessment. Paper presented at the 32nd Annual Conference of the International Association for Educational Assessment, Singapore.
Fok, P. K., Kennedy, K. J., Chan, K. S. J., & Yu, W. M. (2006, May). Integrating assessment of learning and assessment for learning in Hong Kong public examinations. Rationales and realities of introducing school-based assessment. Paper presented at the 32nd Annual Conference of the International Association for Educational Assessment, Singapore.
Kennedy, K. J., Chan, K. S. J., Yu, W. M., & Fok, P. K. (2006, May). Assessment for productive learning: Forms of assessment and their potential for enhancing learning. Paper presented at the 32nd Annual Conference of the International Association for Educational Assessment, Singapore.
Yu, W. M., Kennedy, K. J., Fok, P. K., & Chan, K. S. J. (2006, May). Assessment reform in basic education in Hong Kong: The emergence of assessment for learning. Paper presented at the 32nd Annual Conference of the International Association for Educational Assessment, Singapore.
Chan, K. S. J., Kennedy, K. J., & Fok, P. K. (2005, December). 'Hard' and 'soft' policy: Changing role of teachers in the 'learning to learn' reform. Paper presented at the Faculty of Education of Chinese University of Hong Kong 40th International Conference, Hong Kong.
Fok, P. K., Kennedy, K. J., & Chan, K. S. J. (2005, December). Project learning as "Soft" curriculum policy: Policy influences on teachers' implementation of education reforms in Hong Kong. Paper presented at the Faculty of Education of Chinese University of Hong Kong 40th International Conference, Hong Kong.
Mok, M. M. C., Kennedy, K. J., Cheng, Y. C., & Moore, P. J. (2005, December). Gender differential item functioning in the self-efficacy scale with secondary students. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of Australian Association for Research in Education, Australia.
Other conference paper
Gube, J., Kennedy, K & Bhowmik, M. (2023, June). Cultivating multicultural awareness in Hong Kong: Pre-service teachers' perception on cultural differences in classrooms. Paper presentation]. ERAS International Conference and WERA Focal Meeting 2023, Paris, France.
Wong, K. L., Kennedy, K. J., & Ng, H.Y. (2016, July). Education as a Basic Right: The case of Hong Kong’s Refugees and Asylum Seekers. 12th CitizED International Conference, Birmingham, UK.
Ng, H.Y., & Kennedy, K.J. (2016, June). Exploring the national identities of ethnic minority youth in Hong Kong: Cases Studies of Four Filipinos. Paper presented at the CiCe Association Conference 2016 (Incorporating the CiCe Jean Monnet Network Conference), Madrid, 16-18 June., Madrid.
Wong, K. L., Kennedy, K. J., & Ng, H.Y. (2016, April). Understanding Refugees’ Daily Lives and Education Experiences. Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Bhowmik, M. K & Kennedy, K.J. (2012, February). 'No Child Left Behind': Does It Apply to Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong?. Annual Conference of the Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong, 25 February, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Kennedy, K. J. (2010, April). Teacher Education and Quality Assurance in Hong Kong. Paper presented at the International Conference on Teacher Education, Indonesian University of Education, Bandung, Indonesia.
Kennedy K. J., Hue M. T., & Tsui, K. T. (2008, February). Comparing Hong Kong teachers' sense of efficacy for teaching chinese and non-chinese students. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Kennedy, K. J., Fairbrother, G. P., Leung, Y. W., & Ng, H. Y. (2008, February). Implementing citizenship education in twenty eight countries: Does the mode of curriculum delivery enhance student learning. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Kennedy, K. J., & Chow, J. K. F. (2007, June). Civic and political obligations as citizenship responsibilities: Hong Kong students' conceptions of the "good citizen". Paper presented at the Law Related Education Seminar, Hong Kong.
Kennedy, K. J. (2007, May). Barriers to innovative school practice: A socio-cultural framework for understanding assessment practices in Asia. Paper presented at the Redesigning Pedagogy Conference, Singapore.
Kennedy, K. J. (2007, January). More civics, less democracy: Competing discourses for civics and citizenship education in Austalia. Paper presented at the Biennial Conference of the Comparative Education Society of Asia, Hong Kong.
Kennedy, K. J. (2006, July). The dimensionality of 'active citizenship': Students constructions of participation in democratic societies. Paper presented at the 26th International Congress of Applied Psychology, Athens.
Kennedy, K. J., Hahn, C., & Lee, W. O. (2006, March). Becoming apolitical: A comparison of students' constructions of citizenship in Australia, Hong Kong and the United States. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Honolulu.

Creative and Literary Works, Consulting Reports and Case Studies
Consulting or contract research report
Tsui, K.T., Hui, K.F., Leung, W.L., Yu, W.M., & Kennedy, K.J. (2013). Evaluation report: A study on curriculum leadership and management in primary schools 2010. Hong Kong
Tsui, K.T., Hui, K.F., Yu, W.M., Leung, W.L., & Kennedy, K.J. (2013). Technical Report: A study on curriculum leadership and management in primary schools 2010. Hong Kong

All Other Outputs
Postgraduate research theses
Kennedy, K. (2013). Examination of Elizabeth Criddle's PhD thesis, 'Contested curriculum in Australian schooling: A global to local policy trajectory, Graduate School of Education,. Perth, Western Australia: University of Western Australia.
Kennedy, K. (2013). Examination of Rajenthiran Sellan's PhD thesis, 'English language assessment in the context of policy innovation: A case study of how teachers interpret and manage assessment practices", Division of Education, Arts and Social Sciences,. Adelaide, South Australia: University of South Australia.
Kennedy, K. (2012). Examination of Alvin Pang Khee Meng's EdD thesis, 'Perspectives and Possibilities from Practitioners of In-Service EFL Teacher Training", Graduate School of Education,. Perth, Western Australia: University of Western Australia.
Kerry J Kennedy (2011). Examination of Eric Jabal's PhD thesis, 'Being, Becoming and Belonging: Exploring Students' Experiences of and Engagement with/in the International School in Hong Kong'. University of Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto, OISE.
Other outputs
Kennedy, K. J. (2010). Examination of Tor Geok Hwa's PhD Thesis "Measuring youth civic development in Malaysia: Conceptualization, instrument development using the Rasch measurement model, and substantive outcomes".. Faculty of Arts and Education, University of Western Australia.

Projects

Non-Chinese Students' Learning of Chinese Citizenship in Hong Kong Schools
The purposes of this study are to analyse the curriculum resources of the Citizenship and Social Development (CSD) subject through the lens of citizenship and to with a focus on the learning experiences of ethnic minority students. We intend to understand the discourse on citizenship as reflected in the newly introduced subject of CSD in terms of its approach towards the issues of social and educational inclusion of minorities; and the learning experiences of non-Chinese students.
Project Start Year: 2023, Principal Investigator(s): ZHAO, Zhenzhou (KENNEDY, Kerry John as Co-Principal Investigator)
 
A Comparative Study of School Leadership for Civic Learning in Secondary Schools in Hong Kong and Chinese Taipei
This study investigates how school leaders can provide suitable policy and support to enhance civic teaching and learning. A mixed method approach, utilizing surveys and interviews with principals, teachers and students will provide the data to test our three-level civic learning model.
Project Start Year: 2023, Principal Investigator(s): WONG, Koon Lin (KENNEDY, Kerry John as Co-Investigator)
 
Funding Support to GRF Proposal Rated 3.5 by RGC - A Comparative Study of School Leadership for Civic Learning in Secondary Schools in Hong Kong and Taiwan
Funding Support to GRF Proposal Rated 3.5 by RGC for a project titled A Comparative study of school leadership for civic learning in secondary schools in Hong Kong and Taiwan
Project Start Year: 2021, Principal Investigator(s): WONG, Koon Lin (KENNEDY, Kerry John as Co-Investigator)
 
Teachers' revised assessment practices and effects on secondary-four students' learning outcomes and wellbeing: Assessment reform of Liberal Studies / Civic and Social Development
1. Determine if and how teachers adjust their assessment practice in response to the reform of Liberal Studies HKDSE
2. Determine which factors influence such adjustments
3. Determine the extent to which teachers' adjusted assessment practices align (or not) with their beliefs about assessment in the reformed Liberal Studies
4. Determine how teachers' adjusted assessment practices influence secondary-four students' learning outcomes (academic achievement) and wellbeing in the reformed Liberal Studies

Project Start Year: 2021, Principal Investigator(s): YANG, Min 楊敏 (KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻 as Co-Principal Investigator)
 
Globally Minded Teacher: Knowing, Caring and Acting
This project aims to develop an informal learning program and relevant resources for teacher educators to advance pedagogies that prepare pre-service teachers for catering to learning and cultural diversity and guide pre-service teachers to reflect and draw on this knowledge base to create supportive and inclusive learning environments for all learners.

Project Start Year: 2021, Principal Investigator(s): GUBE, Jan Christian C 高俊傑 (KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻 as Co-Investigator)
 
Ethnic Minorities and Hong Kong's Current Protests: Non-Chinese "Hongkonger" Communities and Their Values
The purpose of the research is to identify how ethnic minorities view and engage in the current protests as well as their views on necessary new policies to deescalate the protests.
Project Start Year: 2020, Principal Investigator(s): BHOWMIK, Miron Kumar (KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻 as Co-Investigator)
 
Diversity, Equity and Social Inclusion Research Group
This proposal builds on and extends the achievements over the last two years by the Intercultural Studies Strategic Research Group in establishing a culture of collaborative research and high quality research outcomes:
i) Successful grant applications on diversity: 5 of 6 GRF/ECS applications since 2017 successful (83% success rate);
ii) Quality outputs: 1 co-edited book (Springer), 9 A*, 6 A journal articles by members on diversity (2 co-authored; three won awards)
iii) Research collaboration: multi-method, collaborative research project involving all members on ‘Belonging of Diverse Youth in Hong Kong’
iv) International conferences: AERA Symposium (2019); presentations at Korean Association for Multicultural Education (KAME) (2019);
v) RPG support: Monthly Theory Reading group.
vi) Community engagement: Symposium with the Equal Opportunity Commission, NGOs, schools practitioners and community members on ‘Minorities and Education: Future directions?’, https://sites.google.com/friends.eduhk.hk/intercultural-res/events/symposium
vii) Internationalization: i) established APIRN (Asia Pacific Intercultural Research Network) to connect regional diversity scholars. Includes members from Korean Educational Development Institute, Gyeongin National University of Education (South Korea), Osaka University (Japan), University of Canberra (Australia), Chiang Mai University (Thailand), National Institute of Education (Singapore).

Project Start Year: 2020, Principal Investigator(s): HALSE CHRISTINE MARGARET , JACKSON, Liz null (KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻 as Co-Investigator)
 
Exploring the Contextual Influence of School, Home and Community on the Development of Ethnic Minority Students’ Sense of Belonging in Hong Kong
Ethnic minority education in Hong Kong has been in the spotlight since the passing of the Racial Discrimination Ordinance in 2008. As Bhowmik (2014) shows, ethnic minority students are concerned about peer relationships, racism and future employment. This suggests more needs to be known about how schools address these concerns about identity and sense of belonging. However, as Fiske (2004) and Kune (2011) argue, the needs of ethnic minority students cannot be fulfilled unless they feel they belong to and are accepted as members of their school, community and Hong Kong society.

From the perspectives of the social construction of reality and symbolic interactionism, this study will examine how Hong Kong’s ethnic minority students perceive and experience a sense of belonging in the contexts of school, home and community. Consistent with symbolic interactionism, belonging will be examined as an everyday practice both within and beyond schools. Studies suggest that ethnic minority students’ school and community engagement is low (Willms, 2003; Kuang, 2015), and that their sense of belonging intersects with their sense of identity (Anthias, 2001), language, socio-economic circumstances, as well as social categorizations and power in society (Yuval-Davis, 2011) as they explore the space between the dominant culture and other minoritized cultures. The impact of these multiple contextual influences will be the major focus of this project.
We will use a mixed methods research design to examine ethnic minority students’ sense of belonging. Quantitatively, a student survey in four schools (n=1,200) will be conducted using the Hemingway Measure of Adolescent Connectedness (MAC 4). To provide qualitative in-depth insights with the use of participant observation, interviews and textual analysis, two case-study schools will be chosen, where the findings of the survey indicate highest and lowest levels of belonging. The identified students will be interviewed and their narrative and constructs will be compared with teachers' and parents' perceptions of these students' sense of belonging. The methodology adopted will not only cross-check the survey data but also gain more insights into ethnic minority students’ sense of belonging (Phinney, 1992; Robert et al., 1999). The results will shed light on a missing dimension in the study of ethnic minority students in Hong Kong, and address a gap in the current research relating to ethnic minority education.
Project Start Year: 2020, Principal Investigator(s): HUE MING TAK 許明得 (KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻 as Co-Investigator)
 
Inclusion and Equity for Hong Kong’s Diverse Classrooms
The purpose of this project is to ensure that all teachers recognize the importance of creating inclusive and equitable classrooms. That they have experience of such teaching in their own teacher education and that they are equipped with the knowledge and skills to assist them become active creators of, and carers for, inclusive and equitable classrooms.
Project Start Year: 2020, Principal Investigator(s): GUBE, Jan Christian C, (KENNEDY, Kerry John as Co-Principal Investigator)
 
Investigating the Effectiveness of an Information Technology Entrepreneurship Training Program for Ethnic Minorities in Hong Kong (香港少數族裔資訊科技創業培訓計劃的成效評估)
..
Project Start Year: 2019, Principal Investigator(s): LEUNG, Chi Hung 梁智熊 (KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻 as Co-Investigator)
 
Capacity Building for Lead Teacher Training Universities (LTTUs) in Vietnam
This project was designed to improve capacity of Lead Teacher Training Universities (LTTUs) and central teacher management unit in Viet Nam to improve effectiveness of teachers' and principals' education and training to meet the demands of educational reform in Viet Nam.
Project Start Year: 2017, Principal Investigator(s): LEE, Chi Kin John 李子建 (KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻 as Co-Investigator)
 
Curriculum Policy Implementation: The Concerns and Sense-making of School Leaders and Teachers in the New Senior Secondary Curriculum Reform
This study will engage various levels of school implementers, including school leaders and teachers, to investigate their concerns and sense-making regarding the New Senior Secondary Curriculum Reform (NSSCR) in Hong Kong. Studies on curriculum policy implementation show that policy implementation is an ongoing and interactional process and is affected by different actors in school contexts (Ball, 2008; Datnow and Park, 2009; Veselý, 2012). The proposed study will add to ongoing international research on educational policy to investigate the interactional processes of individuals and groups in school contexts, and fill gaps in the research as to how school systems can work effectively. In particular, school leaders’ and teachers’ concerns and sense-making will be brought together to form the lens for understanding the NSSCR policy implementation.

A mixed-method approach will be adopted in this study, with survey and case study methods directed at identifying the multi-levels of school implementers’ concerns and their sense-making processes during implementation. The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM), which is widely used for understanding implementation, will be employed to determine the concerns of the school implementers (Hall, Dirksen and George, 2006; Hall and Hord, 2011). The Stages of Concern Questionnaire will be adopted to tap into the concerns of a stratified representative sample of school implementers in Hong Kong. Subsequently, case studies will be used to probe the school implementers’ sense-making processes, which will help unveil the process of how multi-level actors in schools pave the way for adapting the curriculum policy in developing their students, colleagues and school organisation.

Significant outcomes are expected from this study. Firstly, the concerns of school implementers will be identified, whose patterns will be categorized, and further be investigated of how school implementers at various stages of concern implement curriculum policy through sense-making processes in school contexts. Through case studies, an in-depth investigation will help identify and analyse issues related to how different actors in schools interact with self, others and contexts in paving the way through the dilemmas of policy implementation, particularly in a context which typically has a centralised policymaking characteristic. Finally, the results will provide insights into the relationship between policy itself and its context, and will respond to issues regarding international studies on curriculum policy implementation regarding school leaders’ and teachers’ roles and their professional development in effective school systems.

Project Start Year: 2016, Principal Investigator(s): CHAN, Kin Sang, Jacqueline 陳健生, FOK, Ping Kwan 霍秉坤 (KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻 as Co-Investigator)
 
Youth Radicalism in Hong Kong: Exploring Changes in Adolescents' Civic Consciousness and Attitudes to the Nation
The project investigates the attitudes of young people committed to localism, the factors that influenced them, their plans for the future and their conceptions of citizenship.
Project Start Year: 2016, Principal Investigator(s): KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻
 
‵Big Data′ for School Improvement: Identifying and Analyzing Multiple Data Sources to Support Schools as Learning Communities
The project aims to (1) identify multiple sources of data (‘big data’) with the potential to improve student learning and make it available to school leaders and teachers in Hong Kong schools; (2) identify researchable issues from ‘big data’ and support ongoing research that may result in significant knowledge transfer initiatives; (3) support high quality research output based on research undertaken on ‘big data’; and (4) provide research training for post-doctoral fellows working on the project and for PhD students attracted to the project.
Project Start Year: 2016, Principal Investigator(s): CHIU, Ming Ming (KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻 as Co-Investigator)
 
Towards a Refugee Policy for an Inclusive Hong Kong: Enhancing the Status of China's International City
Under some duress, the Hong Kong SAR Government (HKSARG) has adopted a Unified Screening Mechanism (USM) for refugees. While this is an important step forward, criticism of the Administration’s handling of refugee issues continues (Legislative Council Secretariat, 2014). Internationally, Aljazeera (Banu, 2014) proclaimed “Hong Kong’s refugee shame” and argued that “Hong Kong must update its refugee policy to match its growing image as an international city”. This proposal has been developed to address these issues.
There are three key concerns related to the issue of refugees:
1. The reasons for refugees leaving their homes to come to Hong Kong have rarely been examined. Refugee issues are more often canvassed in emotional terms related to Hong Kong’s failure to sign the UN Convention on Refugees. Thus the current ‘policy’ debate rarely comes to grip with key issues.
2. At a different level, little is known about the everyday living experiences of refugees in Hong Kong. This has given rise to statements in the Legislative Council that “claimants (are) engaging in illegal employment and criminal activities during their stay in Hong Kong”. These claims need to be investigated.
3. Part of the experience of refugees is related to their families, and in particular accompanying children. There is little information in the public domain on the topic. Yet Hong Kong is signatory to international covenants about the rights of children and has a domestic obligation for compulsory educational provision. The issue requires clarification.
The current research will explore these issues based on an understanding of the Administration’s legal responsibilities, the current contexts in which refugee migration takes place, the needs of Hong Kong in a globalized world order, the needs of refugees, and the necessity for an internationally acceptable solution. As has been argued, refugee policy is about “self-image” and it is Hong Kong’s image that this project seeks to enhance.
The research will be conducted in two-stages. The first stage will involve document analysis and interviews with key policy makers, non-government agencies and school professionals. The second stage will include case studies of refugees and asylum seekers. The case studies based on in-depth interviews and observations will provide data for policy development. In-depth interviews with officials from government bureaus and NGOs will provide understandings on different refugee issues. In-depth interviews with school professionals as well as the case studies with some refugees will help explore the educational provision for refugee children.

Project Start Year: 2015, Principal Investigator(s): KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻
 
Towards a Refugee Policy for an Inclusive Hong Kong: Enhancing the Status of China’s International City (Central Policy Unit Project 2014.A5.010.15B)
The project has three broad objectives:
(1) To identify the main reasons refugees come to Hong Kong and assess the implications for informing policy development,
(2) To investigate and seek to understand the everyday experiences of refugees in Hong Kong,
(3)To assess refugee family responsibilities and in particular the Administration’s responsibility for educational provision in relation to refugee children. Project Duration : June 2015- August 2016

Project Start Year: 2015, Principal Investigator(s): KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻
 
'Neither Immigrants nor Citizens' Constructing Citizenship Values in a Transnational Context for Hong Kong’s Ethnic Minority Students?
This proposal focuses on “the limits of citizenship” (Soysal, 1994) in a transnational context. It draws on research developed from the “new institutionalism” by adopting a theoretical framework that views institutions as major influences on attitudes. Social identity theory is also be used to acknowledge the agency of individuals in responding to the institutional contexts in which they are embedded. The focus of the research is Hong Kong’s ethnic minority students where previously the emphasis has been on micro issues of educational provision. The current proposal seeks to locate ethnic minority students in a broader macro social and institutional context. It will assess students’ responses to that context in terms of their attitudes to citizenship as well as their social identities. This is a trajectory approach: from macro to micro, from structure to agency. It seeks to understand how ethnic minority students are influenced by and in turn influence the environment in which they live and how this dialectic may influence their life chances.
Since 1 July 1997, the macro context in Hong Kong has been dominated by the development of closer ties between the city and the political and economic infrastructure of China. All former British subjects of Chinese descent in Hong Kong automatically became Chinese citizens (White, 1987). Current new arrivals from China intending to take up residence in Hong Kong are referred to as “immigrants.” Yet at the time of the handover, there were other than people of Chinese descent in Hong Kong and their status was left to the British to determine (Sui & Ku, 2009). These non-Chinese groups remain invisible – neither citizens nor immigrants. Institutional theory has argued that such a context must influence the attitudes of non-citizens in much the same way as political culture exerts influences through processes of political socialization (Weldon, 2006). The institutional contexts influencing ethnic minority students and their responses to them are the subject of this proposal

Project Start Year: 2015, Principal Investigator(s): HUE, Ming Tak 許明得 (KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻 as Co-Investigator)
 
Poverty of Ethnic Minority Children in Hong Kong
In the past decade, the number of ethnic minorities in Hong Kong has surged by 31.2%, with the total population increasing from 343,950 in 2001 to 451,183 in 2011. There are growing concerns about the social condition of this fast-growing segment of the Hong Kong population. Because of cultural differences and language barriers, ethnic minorities often find themselves in a disadvantaged position in terms of employment and education, and they also share similar problems with other Chinese migrants in assimilating into Hong Kong society. As a result, like other underprivileged groups such as single-parent and immigrant families, ethnic minorities are more vulnerable to poverty when compared with the general population in Hong Kong. Past research shows that poverty not only has profound detrimental effects on children’s development and educational attainment, children growing up in poor ethnic minority households are also likely to have a bleaker economic outlook during adulthood, and have a higher chance of passing poverty on to the next generation. However, we have little knowledge of the child poverty rates in ethnic minority families in Hong Kong, as family characteristics including parental educational level, language proficiency, marital status, and duration of residence in Hong Kong affect the likelihood of child poverty in these families. Although the child poverty rate has remained relatively stable in Hong Kong over the past decade, the trend among ethnic minority families and the factors that contribute to the trend are also largely unknown.

In order to formulate effective interventions to help ethnic minority children in poverty and prevent the situation from degenerating into intergenerational poverty, we need to have a comprehensive understanding of the extent of the problem and the characteristics of ethnic minorities who are falling below the poverty level. To achieve this goal, this project will analyze the data from the 2001 and 2011 Population Censuses with the following objectives: 1) assess the child poverty risk of ethnic minorities compared with the Chinese population in Hong Kong; 2) assess the extent to which differences in parental human capital (that is, educational level and proficiency in Cantonese and English) identify patterns of disparity in the poverty status of children from ethnic minority and local families; 3) assess whether and to what extent child poverty varies by the ethnicity status of families according to the parents’ human capital level; 4) assess the emerging trend of child poverty in ethnic minority households and the factors underlying this trend. The result of this project will inform the policy initiatives designed to address the underprivileged group of ethnic minorities in Hong Kong.

Project Start Year: 2014, Principal Investigator(s): CHEUNG, Chi Kin 張志健 (KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻 as Co-Investigator)
 
Education for Vulnerable Groups in Asia and Europe: A Cross Cultural Comparison of Refugees in Multiple Contexts
This project seeks to understand international practices in responding to refugees and from an analysis of these to derive a set of socially just principles that reflect good practice for governmental responses to refugees. It is a policy study designed to further understanding of a complex social problem that has manifested itself in many nations across the globe.
Project Start Year: 2014, Principal Investigator(s): KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻
 
Hong Kong's Refugees: Policy Issues and their Implications for the School Curriculum
To explore issues relating to refugees in Hong Kong but particularly as they relate to educational provisions for refugee children and the implications for the school curriculum.
Project Start Year: 2014, Principal Investigator(s): KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻
 
Creating culturally responsive classrooms in a Chinese context: A study of teacher and school attitudes to multicultural teaching competence in Hong Kong schools
Hong Kong is a multicultural society without any multicultural policy support. Schools have a predominantly Chinese student population but some 1.94% of our students are ethnic minorities. (School Education Statistic Section, EDB, 2012). These students remained invisible in the school system until the 2008 Racial Discrimination Ordinance and the implementation of inclusive education policy in 2002 (EDB, 2010, 2011). Without a broad multicultural environment supporting our schools, how do teachers better support the learning of ethnic minority students, make them feel included and address the issues of diversity involved? It can be argued that teachers’ lack of knowledge of ethnic minority students’ backgrounds and cultures impedes effective teaching and learning and the promotion of inclusion. Hence the broad aim of this proposed study is to address the issue of Hong Kong’s teachers’ multicultural competence in supporting the learning of ethnic minority students at the various levels of classroom, school and teacher professional development, as identified in our prior research projects (Hue, 2008: Hue &' Kennedy, 2012; Kennedy & Hue, 2011: Kennedy, 2008). Specifically the study will explore teachers’ views of culturally responsive teaching and how such teaching can support the learning of these students in public schools. These students are among our lowest academic achievers, come from low socio-economic backgrounds, face problems of social adjustment and experience learning difficulties in the foreign languages of Chinese and English.
Project Start Year: 2013, Principal Investigator(s): HUE, Ming Tak 許明得 (KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻 as Co-Investigator)
 
'Neither Immigrants nor Citizens' Constructing Citizenship Values in a Transnational Context for Hong Kong’s Ethnic Minority Students?
The purpose of this project was to conduct a pilot study that would facilitate the redevelopment and resubmission of a GRF project in the general area of the topic listed above.
The GRF project was redeveloped, resubmittted and successfully funded.

Project Start Year: 2013, Principal Investigator(s): KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻
 
Engagement of Immigrant and Minority Students with Schools and Civil Society
This project aims at 1) examining the nature of engagement of minority and immigrant students with school and civic society, 2) comparing the similarities and differences between the nature of school and civic engagement among the different student groups, 3) determining the relationship between school engagement and civic engagement of minority and immigrant students and 4) identifing the medicating factors affecting the different student groups in school and civic engagement. Afterall, recommendation to policies and provisions for enabling greater school and civic participation of all student sin an inclusive and equal society is made.
Project Start Year: 2012, Principal Investigator(s): YUEN YUET MUI, CELESTE 袁月梅 (KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻 as Team Member)
 
The Civic Mission of Schools: Citizenship Education, Democratic School Governance and Students’ Participation
The Project "The civic mission of schools: Citizenship education, democratic school governance and students' participation" is a 3-year project funded by the General Research Fund (GRF). The aim of the Project is to investigate the contribution of students' participation in school governance in nurturing active participatory citizens.
Project Start Year: 2012, Principal Investigator(s): LEUNG, Yan Wing 梁恩榮 (KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻 as Co-Investigator)
 
Understanding Chinese Students' Attitudes to Citizenship: Adapting the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study for Use in Mainland China
The aims of this study are to:
• Develop a version of the ICCS 2009 survey that will be acceptable to Mainland authorities;
• Trial the revised survey instrument and assess its psychometric properties;
• Develop a sampling frame for large scale administration of the revised survey instrument;
• Train municipal education staff to administer the revised survey instrument according to ICCS 2009 standards;
• Supervise the administration of the adapted and revised ICCS 2009 survey instrument.

Project Start Year: 2012, Principal Investigator(s): CHONG, King Man Eric 莊璟珉 (KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻 as Co-Principal Investigator)
 
Asian Students’ Conceptions of Citizenship: Constructing Indigenous Views of Citizens, Citizenship Education and the State
Civic and citizenship education is primarily constructed on Western models of politics and the state. Existing theoretical work has argued that Western models area at odds with thinking about citizenship in Asian countries (Lee, 2004, 2008). Nevertheless, successive international civics assessment projects (Torney, Oppenheim & Farren, 1975; Torney-Purta et al., 2001) have neglected alternative views of citizenship with the assumption that liberal democracy is the dominant paradigm influencing the development of citizenship education. In 2009, the International Civic and Citizenship Study (ICCS) (Ainley, Schultz Faillon & Losito, 2010) recognized the importance of tapping diverse views of citizenship and included five Asian societies students from which completed both the International Survey and a specific Asian Regional Module (ARM) designed for Asian students only. This has created the possibility to investigate empirically Asian students’ conceptions of citizenship, compare them with the views of students from other parts of the world (e.g. Latin America and Europe) and make an assessment of the distinctiveness or otherwise of the views of Asian students. These empirical analyses, while important in themselves, will also provide the bases for a theoretical analysis that will seek to relate these results to the existing literature on Asian conceptions of citizenship. This will be a test of the theoretical adequacy of the empirical results and it will also create the possibility for new theoretical issues to be identified and explored.

Given the significant role that Asia now plays in economic and political events, the purposes of this project are to analyze Asian students’ conceptions of citizenship from multiple persepctive, investigate the causes of these attitudes, compare these attitudes both within the region and beyond and assess the implications for understanding not only the nature and purpose of civic and citizenship education in Asian contexts but also the possible influence of such conceptions on notions of the state. This project, therefore, has the potential to expand understanding of citizenship, citizenship education and the relation of the two to the state.

The results of this study will provide baseline data on Asian students’ conceptions of citizenship. It will provide insights into the way future citizens think about citizenship in one of the most strategic regions in the world. Importantly, the results will provide the basis for comparisons with young people in other parts of the world.

Project Start Year: 2011, Principal Investigator(s): KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻
 
A Study on Curriculum Leadership and Management in Primary Schools 2010
The purpose of the Study is to solicit views from primary school heads/deputy heads, Primary School Curriculum Leaders (PSCLs) and KLA/subject heads on the implementation of the PSCL Scheme and its impact on curriculum leadership and management in primary schools in order to inform further development.
Project Start Year: 2010, Principal Investigator(s): TSUI Kwok Tung 徐國棟, KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻
 
Exploring Cultural Diversity in Chinese Classrooms: Can Assessment Environments Cater for the Needs of Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong?
Ethnic minority students are a small and, until recently, a largely unrecognized group within Hong Kong’s education system. Their participation is most noticeable in primary and junior secondary school but almost negligible in senior secondary and higher education. The disadvantage suffered by these students has been highlighted recently by political processes that have put in place legislation prohibiting race discrimination. This has led to government actions designed to support ethnic minority students at all levels of education.

Despite such actions, addressing the needs of ethnic minority students poses considerable problems, not so much for policy reasons as reasons related to educational practice. A significant amount of literature on learning and assessment in Hong Kong contexts has focused on Chinese students (Watkins and Biggs, 1996, Brown et al., in press, Mok, Cheng, Moore, & Kennedy, 2006). In general, this literature indicates that there are Chinese cultural norms governing both the learning behavior of students and the expectations of teachers. Yet there is now an emergent, and publicly acknowledged, multiculturalism represented by ethnic minority students. A key issue for this project, therefore, is how these traditional Chinese cultural norms are modified for multicultural classes and how they impact on ethnic minority students and their progress in learning.

The learning culture of Hong Kong classrooms catering for ethnic minority students will be investigated to identify any barriers to learning faced by ethnic minority students. The focus will be on the way classroom assessment environments have the potential to either include or exclude students from successful schooling. The classroom assessment environment focuses on “the way teachers communicate their expectations to students and the way they provide feedback as to how well these expectations are met…(thus) help(ing) students form concepts of what is important to learn and how (Brookhart and De Voge, 1999, p.409).

This research seeks to understand the realities of ethnic minority students in Hong Kong classrooms and to develop a model that can help tto explain learning outcomes for ethnic minority students. Distal influences such as system and school level policies will be examined. Proximal influences such as teachers’ conceptions of assessment and their classroom practices will also be studied. Attention will also be paid to students’ own conceptions of assessment as well as their self efficacy for learning. The project will identify the relationship between these different influences and the impact they exert on the learning of ethnic minority students.

Project Start Year: 2010, Principal Investigator(s): KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻
 
Teachers’ Conceptions and Practices of Assessment in Chinese Contexts
The purpose of this project is to work closely with teachers in Hong Kong and the Mainland in order to better understand their conceptions and practices of assessment. The project evidence that can be used for the improvement of pre- and in-service teacher education. Objectives of this initiative are: (i) to understand school teachers’ conceptions of assessment in China (including the Mainland and Hong Kong); (ii) to understand the relation between teachers’ conceptions and practice of assessment in China; and (iii) to compare conceptions and practice of assessment between school teachers in China and the West.
Project Start Year: 2008, Principal Investigator(s): KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻
 
Hong Kong Students' Attitudes to Citizenship: Monitoring Progress Ten Years after Hong Kong's Return to China
The purpose of this project is to provide a framework for ongoing measurement of young people’s attitude to citizenship and national identity. Baseline measures based on 1999/2000 survey data of Hong Kong students’ citizenship values (Torney-Purta et al., 2001; Amadeo et al., 2003) will be developed. A new survey made up of these original questions but also including new questions focusing on national identity will be administered in 2009 to provide the second measurement point for comparison against the baselines. The new survey can then be used at regular intervals to chart ongoing development of students’ attitudes to citizenship and national identity.
Project Start Year: 2008, Principal Investigator(s): KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻
 
International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) 2009 in Hong Kong
The purpose of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) is to investigate, in a range of countries, the ways in which young people are prepared and consequently ready and able to undertake their roles as citizens. In pursuit of this purpose, the study will report on student achievement in a test of conceptual understandings and competencies in civics and citizenship. It will also collect and analyze, as additional outcome variables, data about student activities, dispositions, and attitudes related to civic and citizenship education. The collection of contextual data will help explain variation in the outcome variables.
(NOTE: Prof LEE Wing On was the Chief Investigator of this project from 1/2008 to 3/2010)

Project Start Year: 2008, Principal Investigator(s): LEE WING ON 李榮安, KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻
 
Using On-Line Learning to Provide a Self-Contained and Flexible Learning Environment for Post-graduate Students
The project aimed to utilize two MEd modules to identify the features of on-line learning and create the appropriate learning environment for the participants. The investigators also explored the potential of educational media as well as the capacity of Blackboard to become a vehicle for providing feedback on student learning.
Project Start Year: 2007, Principal Investigator(s): KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻, HUI, Ming Fai Margaret 許明輝
 
Alternative Policy Instruments for Enhancing Citizenship Education
The purpose of this study is to determine the suitability and desirability of, capacity for, and potential obstacles to implementing an independent, compulsory course of citizenship education at the junior secondary level of Hong Kong's education system. Despite adjustments to Hong Kong's citizenship education since the transition period to Chinese sovereignty, survey research and the demands of sectors of the public suggest that citizenship education as currently practiced in Hong Kong shows considerable continuity with the pre-1997 period and is not achieving intended results in areas such as the development of national identity. This project aims to seek explanations for such ineffectiveness of citizenship education and to determine whether there are more effective policy instruments which could improve the provision of citizenship education.
Project Start Year: 2007, Principal Investigator(s): FAIRBROTHER Gregory Paul (KENNEDY Kerry John as Co-Investigator)
 
Educational Provision for Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong: Meeting the Challenges of the Proposed Racial Discrimination Bill 香港小數族裔學童的教育服務:面對提倡反種族歧視草案帶來的挑戰
This research will investigate current educational provision for ethnic minority students in Hong Kong's schools in the light of the proposed Bill. It will use a 'macro-micro' approach that acknowledges the importance of different levels of policy making and interpretation. First, the current systemic policy context that influences educational provision in Hong Kong will be examined with special reference to minority students. The local context will be compared with international policy trends in the provision of education for minority students. This comparison will enable benchmarks of provision to be established. Second, school level policy and practice will be examined to determine how educational provision at the local level operates in relation to minority students. Understanding this level is important because it is here that the basis for discriminatroy behavior will be most likely to manifest itself. Third, the views of ethnic minority parents and students will be gathered to develop insight to the actual experiences of ethnic minority families in Hong Kong. In particular the focus will be on their aspirations for education and the barriers, if any, that they see as a result of current educational provision.
Project Start Year: 2006, Principal Investigator(s): KENNEDY Kerry John
 
Curriculum Reform as 'Soft' Policy Implementation: Theorising Curriculum Reform Processes and Understanding Curriculum as Text
The importance of curriculum implementation is often undervalued as a simple school level issue. Yet governments across the Asia Pacific region have invested considerable resources in curriculum from being overly academic, competitive, elitist, exam dominated and bureaucratic to one that is relevant and meaningful to both society and individuals, inclusive of the needs of all students and geared to assisting students become creative, innovative and critical, problem solvers. In this sense, the social value of the curriculum, and hence its successful implementation, cannot be overstimated at a time of immense change and uncertainry in the region. The current study, therefore, while concerned with issues of educational theory and practice, is also concerned to enhance the social value of the school curriculum.
Project Start Year: 2006, Principal Investigator(s): KENNEDY Kerry John
 
Assessment for Productive Learning: Developing a Holistic Conception of Assessment's Contribution to Student Learning
The main purpose of this research is to assist schools improve student learning through assessment. The research will challenge conceptions of assessment that compartmentalize "assessment for learning" and "assessment of learning". This distinction is unhelpful and unproductive for schools and teachers. The key issue is not to classify different kinds of assessment but rather to develop strategies that make use of all forms of assessment to promote student learning.
Project Start Year: 2005, Principal Investigator(s): KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻
 
Secondary Students' Independent Learning: The Conceptual Framework, Measurement, Profile and Application for School Improvement
This research develops a theoretical model of self-learning of secondary students which is aligned with the Hong Kong education aims, based on sound theoretical and knowledge basis. This includes theorizing on the characteristics and process of self-learning, identifying key components (cognitive, affective, motivational, behavioral and contextual) in the self-learning process, as well as mapping the configuration and describing the dynamics of relationship among these components in the context of local education. The model is validated with empirical data from a representative sample of local students and schools on secondary students' self-learning process. Findings are going to inform local education reform.
Project Start Year: 2003, Principal Investigator(s): MOK MAGDALENA MO CHING 莫慕貞 (KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻 as Co-Investigator)