Dr WAN, Zhihong   萬志宏
Assistant Professor
Department of Curriculum and Instruction
Phone No: (852) 2948 8696
Fax No: (852) 2948 7563
Email: wanzh@eduhk.hk
(852) 2948 8696
(852) 2948 7563
Scopus ID
Research Interest

Science curriculum; Nature of Science; Teacher conception; High-order thinking

Professional Profile

Dr. Wan obtained his PhD from the University of Hong Kong. Before starting his research in science education, he had taught middle school science for 5 years. His current major research interests are cross-disciplinary STEM curriculum design and high-order critical thinking.

Research Interest

Science curriculum; Nature of Science; Teacher conception; High-order thinking

Selected Output

Scholarly Books, Monographs and Chapters
So, W.W.M., Wan, Z.H., & Chen, Y. (2018). Primary science education in Hong Kong. In Lee, Y-J., & Tan, J. (Eds), Primary Science Education in East Asia (19-48). Switzerland: Springer.
Wan, Z. H. (2018). Intended curriculum of nature of science for prospective school science teachers: scientism in Chinese science teacher educators’ conceptions. In Kennedy, K. J. & Lee, J.C.K., Routledge International Handbook of Schools and Schooling in Asia (125-141). Oxford: Routledge.
Cheng, M. H. M. & Wan, Z.H. (2018). Assessment policy in the senior physics curriculum documents of Mainland China and Hong Kong. In Cheng, M. H. M., Jones, A., & Buntting, C. (ed.), Studies in Science Education in the Asia-Pacific Region (167-178). London: Routledge.
Wan, Z.H. (2014). Conflict or integration: The implementation of formative assessmemt within Chinese examination culture. In Hong Kong Teacher Association (ed.), Inheritance and Develoment of the Education in China (23-28). Hong Kong: Author.
Wong, S.L., Wan, Z.H., & Cheng, K.L. (2014). One Country, two systems: Nature of Science education in Mainland China and Hong Kong. In M. R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, philosophy, and science teaching (2149-2175). Dordrecht: Springer.
Wong, S.L., Wan, Z.H., & Cheng, M.M.W. (2012). Learning Nature of Science through socio-scientific issues. In T. Sadler (ed.), Socio-scientific issues in science classroom: Teaching, learning and research (245-269). London: Springer.

Journal Publications
Luo, T., So, W. W. M., Wan, Z. H., & Li, W. C. (2021). STEM stereotypes predict students’ STEM career interest via self-efficacy and outcome expectations. International Journal of STEM Education, online first, 1-13.
Wan, Z. H., So, W. M. W.*, & Hu, W. (2021). Necessary or sufficient? The impacts of epistemic beliefs on STEM creativity and the mediation of intellectual risk-taking. International Journal of Science Education, online first, 1-18.
Wan, Z.H. (2021). Exploring the Effects of Intrinsic Motive, Utilitarian Motive, and Self-Efficacy on Students’ Science Learning in the Classroom Using the Expectancy-Value Theory. Research in Science Education, 51, 647-659.
Wan, Z. H., Lee, J. C. K., & Hu, W. (2021). How should undergraduate students perceive knowledge as a product of human creation? Insights from a study on epistemic beliefs, intellectual risk-taking, and creativity. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 39, 100786.
Zhan, Y., Jiang, Y., Wan, Z. H., & Guo, J. J. (2021). Is there an “Expectancy × Value” effect? Investigating the impact of self-efficacy and learning motives on Chinese undergraduates’ use of deep language learning strategies. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 30(1), 83–94.
Wan, Z. H., Lee, J. C. K., Yan, Z., & Ko, P. Y. (2021). Self-regulatory school climate, group regulation and individual regulatory ability: towards a model integrating three domains of self-regulated learning. Educational Studies, n.a., 1-16.
Jiang, Y., Lee, J.C.K., Wan, Z., & Chen, J. (2021). Stricter teacher, more motivated students? Comparing the associations between teacher behaviors and motivational beliefs of Western and East Asian learners. Frontiers in Psychology (Educational Psychology), 11, 564327.
Wan, Z. H., So, W. M. W., & Zhan, Y. (2020). Developing and validating a scale of STEM project-based learning experience. Research in Science Education, online first, 1-7.
Zhan, X., Sun, D*., Wan, Z., Hua, Y., & Xu, R. (2020). Investigating Teacher Perceptions of Integrating Engineering into Science Education in Mainland China. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, doi: 10.1007/s10763-020-10117-2, Online, xx.
Luo, M., Wang, Z, Sun, D*., Wan, Z.H., Zhu, L (2020). Evaluating Scientific Reasoning Ability: the Design and Validation of an Assessment with a focus on Reasoning and the use of Evidence. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 19(2), 261-275.
Zhan, X., Sun, D*., Qiang,C., Song,R., Wan, Z.H. (2019). Propensity score analysis of the impacts of junior secondary students' participation in engineering practices on their attitudes toward engineering. Eurasia Jorunal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 15(11), em1765.
So, W. M. W.*, Chen, Y., Wan, P. (2019). Multimedia e-learning and self-regulated science learning: A study of primary school learners’ experiences and perceptions. Journal of Science Education and Technology, online, 1-1.
Lee, J.C.K., Wan, Z.H., Hui, S.K.F., & Ko, P.Y. (2019). More student trust, more self-regulation strategy? Exploring the effects of self-regulatory climate on self-regulated learning. The Journal of Educational Research, 112(4), 463-472.
So, W. W. M., Kong, S. K., Wan, Z.H., & Chen, Y. (2018). An Analysis of Approaches to Inquiry in a Multimedia Learning Environment of E-Textbooks. Curriculum and Teaching, 33(2), 67-89.
Wan, Z. H., & Cheng, M. H. M. (2018). Classroom learning environment, critical thinking, and achievement in an interdisciplinary subject: A study of Hong Kong secondary school graduates. Educational Studies, 45(3), 285-304.
Wan, Z. H., & Lee, J. C. K. (2017). Hong Kong secondary school students’ attitudes towards science: A study of structural models and gender differences. International Journal of Science Education, 39(5), 507-527.
Cheng, M.M.H., & Wan, Z.H.* (2017). Exploring the Effects of Classroom Learning Environment on Critical Thinking Skills and Disposition: A Study of Hong Kong 12th Graders in Liberal Studies. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 24, 152-163.
Wan, Z. H., & Wong, S. L. (2017). Views from the chalkface: Values of teaching Nature of Science in Hong Kong. Science & Education, 25, 1089-1114.
Zhan Y., & Wan Z. H. (2016). Test takers’ beliefs and experiences of a high-stakes computer-based English listening and speaking test. RELC Journal, 47 (3), 363-376.
Zhan, Y., & Wan, Z. H. (2016). Appreciated but constrained: reflective practice of student teachers in learning communities in a Confucian heritage culture. Teaching in Higher Education, 21(6), 669-685.
Cheng, M.H.M. & Wan, Z.H. (2016). Unpacking the paradox of Chinese science learners: insights from research into Asian Chinese school students’attitudes towards learning science, science learning strategies, and scientific epistemological views. Studies in Science Education, 52(1), 29-62.
Zhan, Y. & Wan, Z. H. (2016). College students’ possible L2 self development in an EFL context during the transition year. English Language Teaching Journal, 9(1), 41-50.
Cheng E. C. K., Chan, S., Wan, Z. H., Hung, V., Lim, C.P., Lai, Y.C.,Chan, T.M., Tam, C.M. (2015). Towards a curriculum framework for development teachers'personal knowledge management competencies. International E-Journal of Advances in Education, 1(2), 105-111.
Wan, Z.H., & Wong, S.L. (2013). Is consensus generalizable? A study of Chinese science teacher educators’ views of nature of science content to be taught. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 14, 1-20.
Wan, Z.H., Wong, S.L., Wei, B., & Zhan, Y. (2013). Focusing on the classical or contemporary? Chinese science teacher educators’ conceptions of Nature of Science content to be taught to pre-service science teachers. Research in Science Education, 43, 2541-2566.
Wan, Z.H., Wong, S.L., & Zhan, Y. (2013). Teaching Nature of Science to student science teachers: A phenomenographic study of Chinese teacher educators’ conceptions. Science & Education, 22, 2593-3619.
Wan, Z.H., Wong, S.L., & Zhan, Y. (2013). When Nature of Science meets Marxism: Aspects of Nature of Science taught by Chinese science teacher educators to prospective science teachers. Science & Education, 22, 1115-1140.
Wan, Z.H., & Wong, S.L. (2013). As an infused or a separated theme? Chinese science teacher educators’ conceptions of incorporating Nature of Science instruction in the courses of training pre-service science teachers. Science Education International, 24(1), 33-62.
Zhan, Y. & Wan, Z.H. (2012). Bridging summative and formative assessment: practice and experience of school-based assessment in Hong Kong. Shanghai Research on Education, 11, 37-40.
Wan, Z.H., Wong, S.L. & Yung, B.H.W. (2011). Common interest, common visions? Chinese science teacher educators’ views about the values of teaching Nature of Science to prospective science teachers. Science Education, 95(6), 1101-1123.
Zhan, Y. & Wan, Z. H. (2010). Perspectives on the cultural appropriacy of assessment for learning in Chinese context. Educate~, 10(2), 9-16.
Zhan, Y., & Wan, Z.H. (2008). Tensions between formative assessment and Chinese examination culture. China Examination, 11, 12-15.
Wan, Z.H. (2003). Applying Balanced Score Card (BSC) in human resource management. Human Resource Management, 6, 28-29.
Wan, Z.H. (2003). Challenges of human resource training in the new century. Human Resource Management, 8, 30-31.
Zhan, Y., & Wan, Z.H. (2002). Perspectives on the ownership innovation in state-owned schools. Journal of Educational Inquiry, 10, 105-106.

Conference Papers
Wan, Z.H. (2017, May). What Nature of Science should be Taught to Student Science Teachers? -Scientism in Chinese Science Teacher Educators’ Conceptions. The 2017 International Conference on Education in Mathematics, Science & Technology (ICEMST), Ephesus Kusadasi, Turkey.
Wan. Z.H. (2016, August). Attitudes towards Science: Structure and gender differences. EASE (East-Asian Association for Science Education) 2016 International Conference, Tokyo, Japan.
Wan, Z.H. & Wong, S.L. (2016, April). Hong Kong In-service Science Teachers' Views on the Values of Teaching Nature of Science. NARST (National Association for Research in Science Teaching) 2016 Annual International Conference, Baltimore/USA.
Cheng, E. C. K., Chan, K. Y., Wan Z. H.,Hung V., Lim C. P., Lai, Y. C., Chan T. M. Tam, C. M. (2015, June). Toward a Curriculum Framework for Developing Teachers’ Personal Knowledge Management Competencies. 2nd International Conference on Education, Social Science and Humanities, Istanbul.
Cheng, M.H. & Wan, Z.H. (2015, April). Understanding the Paradox of Chinese Learners: Insights from Research into Asian Chinese Science Learners. Paper presented at NARST (National Association for Research in Science Teaching) 2015 Annual International Conference (April 11-14, 2015), Chicago.
Cheng, M.H., & Wan, Z.H. (2013, September). One country, two systems: assessment policy in the current senior physics curriculum documents of Mainland China and Hong Kong. the 10th Conference of the European Science Education Research Association (Nicosia, Cyprus), 2nd – 7th September, Nicosia, Cyprus.
Yeung Y.Y. & Wan Z.H. (2011, October). School-based support for immersing digital technology into the inquiry-based project learning of science in a primary school. iry-based project learning of science in a primary school”. Paper presented in the East-Asia Association of Science Education 2011 International Conference, Gwangju, South Korea.


Concentrating on an Edge-cutting Area: Establishing a Research Hub for STEM Integration in Primary Schools
In recent ten years, there is an increasing emphasis in governments’ policies worldwide to promote Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education. Although the significance of promoting STEM education has been widely recognized and considerable numbers of studies have been conducted in recent years, the research on the integration in STEM education as a distinct field of study is still in its embryonic stages. This cluster will target at this significant but under-investigate . . .
Project Start Year: 2021, Principal Investigator(s): WAN, Zhihong 萬志宏
Cross Disciplinary Boundaries: Teachers' Focal Awareness, Classroom Practice and Learning Outcomes of STEM Integration
As a timely response to the recent policy emphasis, this study will trace the development of primary students in creativity through STEM-PBL, which are closely related to achieving the ultimate vision of STEM education, i.e., cultivating competent STEM workforces to strengthen nations’ or regions’ international competiveness through innovation. In addition, it looks into the relationship between student development and the facilitating roles played by their teachers. A model for facilitating stu . . .
Project Start Year: 2019, Principal Investigator(s): WAN, Zhihong 萬志宏
Understanding the Extent of the Integration of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in Students' Inquiry Activities
Project Start Year: 2019, Principal Investigator(s): SO, Wing Mui Winnie 蘇詠梅 (WAN, Zhihong 萬志宏 as Co-Investigator)
Cultivating Students’ Critical Thinking and Creativity through Web-based and Classroom-based Inquiry
Critical thinking and creativity are long-standing objectives in EdUHK strategic plans and within her generic intended learning outcomes (GILOs). Given considerable uncertainty existing in the process of conducting inquiry, students are required to make their own decisions in every stage of doing it, which intrinsically involves the application and development of both creative and critical thinking that are described as the “heartbeat” of inquiry. Inquiry learning was originally adopted in the s . . .
Project Start Year: 2018, Principal Investigator(s): WAN, Zhihong 萬志宏, LEE, Chi Kin John 李子建
Boundary Interaction: Developing a Science Curriculum to Integrate Learning in the Informal Spaces
The project will be a part of a two-year project focusing on the conceptualization of boundary activity for connecting the merits of learning in informal spaces with formal learning, as relates to inquiry-based science curriculum development. An iterative design and refinement of the boundary activity based on the design-based approach will be conducted together with teacher professional development. With an aim to evaluating the efficiency of the intervention, student and teacher performance wi . . .
Project Start Year: 2017, Principal Investigator(s): SUN, Daner 孫丹兒 (WAN, Zhihong 萬志宏 as Collaborator)
Case-based Blended Learning Pedagogies for Pre-service Teachers: Building a Community of Practice in Higher Education Settings
This project aims to (a) explore and examine innovative blended learning (BL) pedagogies that effectively integrate case-based learning (CBL) to enhance student engagement and learning of pre-service teachers, and (b) build professional capacity of BL in higher education settings. This project is grounded in a continuous endeavor to address wide-ranging needs and issues related to teaching and learning of the Education Studies (ES) Core Courses of pre-service programmes. Initial effort has been . . .
Project Start Year: 2017, Principal Investigator(s): LEE, Tai Hoi Theodore 李泰開, YUEN, Wai Kwan Gail 袁慧筠 (WAN, Zhihong 萬志宏 as Co-Investigator)
Developing Peer- and Self-assessment Strategies for the Enhancement of Student Learning Outcomes
This project will seek to enhance student learning outcomes by developing peer-and self-assessment (PASA) strategies and training resources. PASA are student-led assessment practices in which students provide peer- and self-feedback to enhance learning (Harris, Brown, & Harnett, 2015). Hattie and Timperley’s (2007) Model of Feedback Levels will inform the development of PASA strategies and training resources. The PASA strategies will involve the use of feedback prompts for training students in . . .
Project Start Year: 2017, Principal Investigator(s): YANG, Min 楊敏 (WAN, Zhihong 萬志宏 as Team Member)
Secondary School Students’ Views on Nature of Science: Sources, Progression and Effects
Project Start Year: 2017, Principal Investigator(s): WAN, Zhihong 萬志宏
The Effects of STEM Project Based Learning on Primary Students' Epistemological Beliefs and STEM Creativity
Project Start Year: 2017, Principal Investigator(s): WAN, Zhihong 萬志宏
Teachers' Conceptual Change in Their Pedagogical Practices with E-Textbook: From Conception to Realization
General Research Fund (GRF) project funded by University Grant Council (UGC)
Project Start Year: 2016, Principal Investigator(s): SO, Wing Mui Winnie 蘇詠梅 (WAN, Zhihong 萬志宏 as Co-Investigator)
Hong Kong High School Students' Views on Nature of Science in Relation to Science Learning Motives and Strategies
The objective of developing students’ understanding of Nature of Science (NOS) has been long advocated in science education. Recently, it is beginning to take root in Hong Kong science curricula. The most frequently suggested argument for the inclusion of NOS into school curricula is its relationships with the strategies and motives for learning science. Although a few recent quantitative studies have provided preliminary evidence for these relationships, considerable inconsistency can be still . . .
Project Start Year: 2015, Principal Investigator(s): WAN, Zhihong 萬志宏
Assessing senior high school students' attitudes toward science in Hong Kong
Although there has been extensive research investigating students' attitudes towards science in the last four decades, little has been done to probe the internal structure of attitudes towards science itself. In this proposed study, the Structural Equation Modeling method will be adopted to compare five hypothetical models of attitudes towards science. Since teachers’ practice of teaching science is a crucial factor influencing students’ attitudes towards science, their relationship will be also . . .
Project Start Year: 2014, Principal Investigator(s): WAN, Zhihong 萬志宏
In-service Science Teachers’ Views of the Values of Teaching Nature of Science in Hong Kong
Teaching nature of science (NOS) has taken root in science education in Hong Kong. This study aims to investigate Hong Kong in-service teachers’ views of the values of teaching NOS through a semi-structured interview. Suggestions will be made on designing programs to prepare teachers for teaching NOS.
Project Start Year: 2014, Principal Investigator(s): WAN, Zhihong 萬志宏
Developing Macau Benchmarks for Senior Secondary Science
This is a project funded by Educational Bureau of Macau SAR Government
Project Start Year: 2013, Principal Investigator(s): Wei, Bing (WAN, Zhihong 萬志宏 as Co-Investigator)
Developing Macau Benchmarks for Junior Secondary Science
This is a project funded by Educational Bureau of Macau SAR Government to develop a benchmark for junior secondary science teaching and learning in Macau
Project Start Year: 2012, Principal Investigator(s): Wei, Bing (WAN, Zhihong 萬志宏 as Co-Investigator)
Prizes and awards

Young Scholar Award

Date of receipt: 6/7/2013, Conferred by: East-Asia Association of Science Education