Dr FAIRBROTHER, Gregory Paul   方睿明
Associate Professor
Department of Social Sciences
Phone No: (852) 2948 8583
Email: gfairbro@eduhk.hk
Contact
ORCiD
0000-0002-6971-6707
Phone
(852) 2948 8583
Email
gfairbro@eduhk.hk
Scopus ID
8627438200
Research Interest
  • Governance, Legitimacy and Citizenship in Hong Kong and China
  • Sociological Neo-Institutional Theory
  • Political Socialization and Youth Political Attitudes
  • Citizenship Education
  • Educational Policy
External Appointment

Editorial/Advisory Board Membership

  • Chinese Education and Society
  • China Research Perspectives on Educational Development

Professional Society Membership

  • Comparative and International Education Society
    • Special Interest Group on Citizenship and Democratic Education
Selected Journal Reviews
  • Asia Pacific Education Review
  • Asia Pacific Journal of Education
  • China: an International Journal
  • China Review
  • Citizenship Studies
  • Citizenship Teaching and Learning
  • Compare
  • Comparative Education Review
  • Curriculum Perspectives
  • Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education
  • Education Journal
  • Educational Review
  • Frontiers of Education in China
  • International Journal of Educational Development
  • Journal of Educational Planning and Administration
  • Journal of Moral Education
  • The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher
  • The China Quarterly
  • Urban Affairs Review

Professional Profile

Gregory P. Fairbrother is Associate Professor in the Department of Social Sciences. He holds a Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service from Georgetown University, a Master of Arts in International Education Administration and Policy Analysis from Stanford University, and a Ph.D. in Sociology of Education from the University of Hong Kong. He has been dedicated, for the past 20 years, to empirical research and the development of theory designed to elucidate the process and effects of what he calls "educative legitimation," or the use of moral-political-citizenship education for state legitimation in China. The conclusions of his research arise from theoretical insight and development from Neo-Institutionalist and Neo-Marxist theories integrated with data from central-, provincial-, and municipal-level government policy documents (1700s to present); school textbooks (1902-2000s); interviews with government officials, educationalists, teachers, and university students; quantitative surveys of university students; and news sources. The core of his research centers around developing and elaborating the theoretical argument that various Chinese state legitimation processes, from the late imperial period to the present, all revolve around constructing and spreading an image of the Chinese state as traditionally paternalistic while simultaneously incorporating various dimensions of globally-legitimated notions of the proper state-citizen relationship. A secondary thread of his research agenda examines the implications of paternalistic Chinese state legitimation processes for political and educational development in Hong Kong before and after its 1997 return to Chinese sovereignty.

Research Interest

  • Governance, Legitimacy and Citizenship in Hong Kong and China
  • Sociological Neo-Institutional Theory
  • Political Socialization and Youth Political Attitudes
  • Citizenship Education
  • Educational Policy
External Appointment

Editorial/Advisory Board Membership

  • Chinese Education and Society
  • China Research Perspectives on Educational Development

Professional Society Membership

  • Comparative and International Education Society
    • Special Interest Group on Citizenship and Democratic Education
Selected Journal Reviews
  • Asia Pacific Education Review
  • Asia Pacific Journal of Education
  • China: an International Journal
  • China Review
  • Citizenship Studies
  • Citizenship Teaching and Learning
  • Compare
  • Comparative Education Review
  • Curriculum Perspectives
  • Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education
  • Education Journal
  • Educational Review
  • Frontiers of Education in China
  • International Journal of Educational Development
  • Journal of Educational Planning and Administration
  • Journal of Moral Education
  • The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher
  • The China Quarterly
  • Urban Affairs Review

Selected Output

Scholarly Books, Monographs and Chapters
Fairbrother, G. P. (2021). Chinese Nation-State Building and Citizenship. in Z. Guo, Routledge Handbook of Chinese Citizenship (xx-xx). London: Routledge.
Fairbrother, G.P. (2014). Quantitative and qualitative approaches to comparative education. In M. Bray, B. Adamson, & M. Mason, Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods (2nd Edition) (71-93). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong.
Fairbrother, G.P. (2014). The Chinese Paternalistic State and Moral Education. In K.J. Kennedy, G.P. Fairbrother, and Z. Zhao (Eds.), Citizenship Education in China: Preparing Citizens for the "Chinese Century" (11-26). London: London: Routledge.
Kennedy, K.J., Fairbrother, G.P., & Zhao, Z. (2014). Understanding Citizenship Education in China: Multiple Perspectives. In K.J. Kennedy, G.P. Fairbrother, & Z. Zhao, Citizenship Education in China: Preparing Citizens for the "Chinese Century" (222-234). London: Routledge.
Kennedy, K.J., Fairbrother, G.P., & Zhao, Z. (Eds.) (2014). Citizenship Education in China: Preparing Citizens for the “Chinese Century”. London: Routledge.
Zhao, Z., & Fairbrother, G. P. (2010). Pedagogies of cultural integration in Chinese citizenship education. In K. J. Kennedy, W. O. Lee, & D. L. Grossman (Eds.), Citizenship Education Pedagogies in Asia and the Pacific (37-52). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
Wong, S. Y., & Fairbrother, G. P. (2007). The comparative education society of Hong Kong (CESHK). In V. Masemann, M. Bray, & M. Manzon (Eds.), Common Interests, Uncommon Goals: Histories of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies and Its Members (pp.245-255). Hong Kong: Springer, Comparative Education Research Centre of the University of Hong Kong.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2007). Quantitative and qualitative approaches to comparative education. In M. Bray, B. Adamson, & M. Mason (Eds.), Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods (pp.39-62). Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong.
Lee, W. O., David L. Grossman, Kerry J. Kennedy, and Gregory P. Fairbrother, Eds. (2004). Citizenship Education in Asia and the Pacific: Concepts and Issues. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, the University of Hong Kong and Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2004). Patriotic education in a Chinese middle school. In W.O. Lee, D. L. Grossman, K. J. Kennedy, & G. P. Fairbrother (Eds.), Citizenship Education in Asia and the Pacific: Concepts and Issues (157-174). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Kennedy, K. J., & Fairbrother, G. P. (2004). Asian perspectives on citizenship education: Postcolonial constructions or precolonial values?. In W.O. Lee, D. L. Grossman, K. J. Kennedy, and G. P. Fairbrother (Eds.), Citizenship Education in Asia and the Pacific: Concepts and Issues (289-301). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2003). Toward Critical Patriotism: Student Resistance to Political Education in Hong Kong and China. (Reviewed in Asia-Pacific Journal of Education, The China Quarterly, China Journal, International Review of Education, Journal of Moral Education, and Contemporary Sociology). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Journal Publications
Zhao, Zhenzhou & Fairbrother, Gregory P. (2018). Religiosity and Citizenship Values in Chinese Language Textbooks. Citizenship Teaching and Learning, 13(2), 227-239.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2017). Book Review: Social Attitudes in Contemporary China. China Journal, 78, 167-169.
Fairbrother, G. P. & Zhao, Z. (2016). Paternalism, National Citizenship, and Religiosity in Chinese State Legitimation Discourse. Journal of Chinese Political Science, 21(4), xx-xx.
Fairbrother, G. P. & Kennedy, K. J. (2011). Civic education curriculum reform in Hong Kong: What should be the direction under Chinese sovereignty?. Cambridge Journal of Education, 41(4), 425-443.
Fairbrother, Gregory P. (2011). Forging consensus for implementing youth socialization policy in Northwest China. International Journal of Educational Development, 31(2), 179-186.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2010). Alternative policy measures for improving citizenship education in Hong Kong. Citizenship Teaching and Learning, 6(1), 77-90.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2008). Rethinking hegemony and resistance to political education in mainland China and Hong Kong. Comparative Education Review, 52 (3), 381-412.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2006). Protection by, or from, the government: Debating citizenship education policy in Hong Kong's legislative council. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 27 (2), 175-188.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2006). Between Britain and China: Hong Kong's citizenship education policy paradigm. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, 8 (1), 25-42.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2005). Comparison to What End: Miximizing the Potential of Comparative Education Research. Comparative Education, 41, 5-24.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2005). Power and right in Hong Kong's citizenship education. Citizenship Studies, 9 (3), 293-308.
Kennedy, K. J., Lo, Y. C., & Fairbrother, G. P. (2005). Directions for the future of schooling in Hong Kong: Vision and reality in a post-colonial society. International Journal of Educational Research, 41 (2004), 534-542.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2004). Citizenship education in a divided China, 1949-1995. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 24, 29-42.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2003). Perspectives on the shaping of the citizenship education curriculum in greater China. Curriculum Perspectives, 23, 34-46.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2003). The effects of political education and critical thinking on Hong Kong and mainland Chinese university students’ national attitudes. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 24, 605-620.

Conference Papers
Fairbrother, G. P. (2019, December). The Mutual Transformation of Paternalism and Nationalism in Chinese State Legitimation Discourse. Paper Presented at the 21st Annual Conference of the Hong Kong Sociological Association, Hong Kong.
Fairbrother, G.P. (2019, April). Educative Legitimation and Institutional Transformation: A Framework for Investigating Change in Knowledge in Chinese Moral-Political Education. Paper Presented at the Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, San Francisco, USA.
Fairbrother, G.P. & Kong, P.A. (2017, March). Paternalism and the Family in Chinese State Legitimation Discourse, 1902-2012. Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Atlanta, USA.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2016, December). From Empire to Nation-State: Integrating Institutional Logics in Chinese State Legitimation Discourse, 1902-2012. Paper presented at the Hong Kong Sociological Association Annual Conference, Hong Kong.
Fairbrother, G. P. and Zhao, Z. (2016, April). Paternalism and Religiosity in Chinese State Legitimation Discourse. Paper presented at the Workshop on Citizenship Identity Theory and Practice, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2015, March). Theorizing Nationalized Paternalism to Demonstrate Chinese State Legitimacy, 1902-2012. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Washington, DC, USA, Washington, DC.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2014, November). Chinese State-Society Collaboration to Demonstrate Paternalism: The Case of Nationalized Moral-Political Education Text, 1902-2012. Paper presented at the APERA-HKERA 2014 International Conference, Hong Kong.
Fairbrother, G.P. (2013, May). Snapshots of National Education for Responsibility in Mainland China and Hong Kong. Invited Paper delivered at the Sino-America Academic Symposium on Comparative Research on Cultivating Responsibility, Personality and Capability of the Youth, School of Marxism, Tongji University, Shanghai.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2008, March). Legitimacy, decentralization, and citizenship education in China. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, New York, USA.
Kennedy, K. J., Fairbrother, G. P., Leung, Y. W., & Ng, H. Y. (2008, February). Implementing citizenship education in twenty eight countries: Does the mode of curriculum delivery enhance student learning. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2007, February). Gansu's action plan for the healthy development of minors: Implementing central directives on ideological education in China's Northwest. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, USA.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2007, January). Demonstrating legality: Legal education for Chinese youth, 1979-2006. Paper presented at the International Conference on Contemporary China Studies, Hong Kong.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2006, November). Diversity within standardization: Encouraging implementation of moral education policy in China. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Asia-Pacific Educational Research Association International Conference, Hong Kong.
Fairbrother, G. P. (2006, March). The influence of political socialization and critical thinking on Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese university students' attitudes toward the nation. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, USA.

All Other Outputs
(2006). Citizenship education policy since 1994 . M. E. Sharpe. USA.

Project

State Legitimacy Claims in Chinese Citizenship Education, 1912-2008
This research aims to answer the question of how Chinese governments from 1912 to 2008 have used the citizenship education curriculum to present their claims to legitimacy to youth, as future citizens, in an attempt to cultivates’ support for the state. It starts from the assertion that the content of the citizenship education curriculum in China has embodied the claims to legitimacy of the pre-1949 and post-1949 states, in the interest of cultivating youth who support the state and nation and a . . .
Project Start Year: 2009, Principal Investigator(s): FAIRBROTHER Gregory Paul
 
Hong Kong Students' Attitudes to Citizenship: Monitoring Progress Ten Years after Hong Kong's Return to China
The purpose of this project is to provide a framework for ongoing measurement of young people’s attitude to citizenship and national identity. Baseline measures based on 1999/2000 survey data of Hong Kong students’ citizenship values (Torney-Purta et al., 2001; Amadeo et al., 2003) will be developed. A new survey made up of these original questions but also including new questions focusing on national identity will be administered in 2009 to provide the second measurement point for comparison ag . . .
Project Start Year: 2008, Principal Investigator(s): KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻 (FAIRBROTHER, Gregory Paul 方睿明 as Co-Investigator)
 
International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) 2009 in Hong Kong
The purpose of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) is to investigate, in a range of countries, the ways in which young people are prepared and consequently ready and able to undertake their roles as citizens. In pursuit of this purpose, the study will report on student achievement in a test of conceptual understandings and competencies in civics and citizenship. It will also collect and analyze, as additional outcome variables, data about student activities, disposit . . .
Project Start Year: 2008, Principal Investigator(s): LEE WING ON 李榮安, KENNEDY, Kerry John 甘國臻 (FAIRBROTHER, Gregory Paul 方睿明 as Co-Investigator)
 
Alternative Policy Instruments for Enhancing Citizenship Education
The purpose of this study is to determine the suitability and desirability of, capacity for, and potential obstacles to implementing an independent, compulsory course of citizenship education at the junior secondary level of Hong Kong's education system. Despite adjustments to Hong Kong's citizenship education since the transition period to Chinese sovereignty, survey research and the demands of sectors of the public suggest that citizenship education as currently practiced in Hong Kong shows c . . .
Project Start Year: 2007, Principal Investigator(s): FAIRBROTHER Gregory Paul
 
Law Related Education
The proposed law-related education project would provide teachers with background on key concepts within the Common Law tradition including basic knowledge and values of the rule of law and the Hong Kong legal system, individual rights and protection under the law, important legal decisions and legal controversies, and comparisons with other legal system (e.g. Mainland China). Beyond this, however, and a key element of the project, would be the provision of both curricular resources and opportu . . .
Project Start Year: 2007, Principal Investigator(s): FAIRBROTHER Gregory Paul, LEUNG Yan Wing
 
A Study of Provincial-level Implementation of Citizenship Education Policy in China
The aim of this project is to investigate the process by which Chinese provincial educational administrators plan the implementation of central government-formulated policy guidelines on citizenship education in a societal context of educational decentralization and flexible policy implementation. Through documentary analysis and interviews with provincial educational administrators this project will examine what central guidelines advise about citizenship education, how provincial-level impleme . . .
Project Start Year: 2006, Principal Investigator(s): FAIRBROTHER Gregory Paul