Dr LAU, Ngar Sze, Elsa   劉雅詩
Senior Lecturer II
Department of Social Sciences
Contact
ORCiD
0000-0002-2144-591X
Scopus ID
56322590200
Research Interest

研究興趣


Positive, Values and Life education 正向教育、價值教育和生命教育

Contemplative and mindfulness education 靜修和正念教育

Religious and spiritual education 宗教和靈性教育

Mental health and inclusive education 精神健康和融合教育

Religion and mind-body healing 宗教、健康和療癒

Qualitative research and Ethnography 質性研究和民族誌

Teaching Interest

教學興趣


Mindfulness education 靜觀/正念教育

Positive, Values and Life education 正向教育、價值教育和生命教育

Inclusive education 融合教育

Religious and spiritual education 宗教和靈性教育

Qualitative research and ethnography 質性研究和民族誌


External Appointment

Editorial Board member, International Journal of Children's Spirituality (2018- )

Committee member, International Association of Children's Spirituality (2016- )

MA Thesis supervisor & Assistant Professor (Part-time) Fo Guang University, Taiwan R.O.C. (2021- )

Honorary Research Associate, Department of Cultural and Religious Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (2019- )

Research Associate, Centre of Buddhist Studies, New Asia Institute of Advanced Chinese Studies [新亞研究所] (2019- )

Member, CDC-HKEAA Committee of Ethics and Religious Studies for New Senior Secondary, Education Bureau, HKSAR (2004-2008)

Setter, HKEAA, HKSAR (2005-2007)

Marker, HKEAA, HKSAR (2001-2006)

Add-hoc reviewer of academic journals

International Journal of Children’s Spirituality

Mindfulness

Psychology Health and Medicine

Assessment



Professional Profile

Dr. LAU Ngar-sze 劉雅詩

BSSc, PGDE, MPhil, PhD
LAU Ngar-sze received Bachelor of Social Sciences (Sociology) and Postgraduate Diploma of Education from CUHK. She completed her study of MPhil in Social Anthropology at Oxford (UK) and PhD in Religious Studies at Lancaster (UK) focusing on recent transnational meditation and mindfulness movement in contemporary mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan with qualitative approaches. As a Registered Teacher of Education Bureau, she had served a secondary school as a subject coordinator of Ethics and Religious Studies for six years. She also had worked with CDC-HKEAA committee. Before joining Department of Social Sciences, she had worked at the Centre for Religious and Spirituality Education and Department of Special Education and Counselling as Teaching Fellow and Lecturer respectively, with over 13-year university-level teaching experiences. Since she was an adolescent, she has explored meditation in various traditions, including Buddhist Chan(Zen), vipassanā, Christian meditation, and several mindfulness-based programmes. Since 2007 she has started teaching positive education and particularly mindfulness for school students, in-service teachers and undergraduates. She has published papers on contemplative experiences, mindfulness education, values education and spiritual education in international journals and academic publisher, such as Routledge and Bloomsbury Academic. Dr. Lau received the inaugural Caring Teaching Award of Faculty of Education and Human Development (FEHD) at the university in 2021.

劉雅詩畢業於香港中文大學社會學系和教育文憑、英國牛津大學哲學碩士(社會人類學),英國蘭卡斯特大學哲學博士(宗教研究),主要研究中、港、台的跨國禪修和正念/靜觀運動發展。作為教育局註冊教師,她曾於中學教學六年,並擔任倫理宗教科科統籌,亦曾參與課程發展議會-香港考試評核局委員會工作。在加入社會科學系工作前,她曾於教大宗教教育與心靈教育中心和特殊教育與輔導學系任職專任導師和講師,具有超過13年大學教學經驗。自九十年代中開始她探究多種靜修方法,包括東方禪和內觀、西方默觀和多個靜觀/正念課程。具有超過廿五年學習不同靜修傳統的經驗。自2007年她開始向學生、在職老師和本科生等教授正念。她曾於多份國際期刊和學術出版社如Routledge 及Bloomsbury Academic 等發表有關靜修傳統、靜觀/正念教育、價值教育和靈性教育等學術文章。於2021年劉博士榮獲教育及人類發展學院首屆關愛育人獎。

Research Interest

研究興趣


Positive, Values and Life education 正向教育、價值教育和生命教育

Contemplative and mindfulness education 靜修和正念教育

Religious and spiritual education 宗教和靈性教育

Mental health and inclusive education 精神健康和融合教育

Religion and mind-body healing 宗教、健康和療癒

Qualitative research and Ethnography 質性研究和民族誌

Teaching Interest

教學興趣


Mindfulness education 靜觀/正念教育

Positive, Values and Life education 正向教育、價值教育和生命教育

Inclusive education 融合教育

Religious and spiritual education 宗教和靈性教育

Qualitative research and ethnography 質性研究和民族誌


External Appointment

Editorial Board member, International Journal of Children's Spirituality (2018- )

Committee member, International Association of Children's Spirituality (2016- )

MA Thesis supervisor & Assistant Professor (Part-time) Fo Guang University, Taiwan R.O.C. (2021- )

Honorary Research Associate, Department of Cultural and Religious Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (2019- )

Research Associate, Centre of Buddhist Studies, New Asia Institute of Advanced Chinese Studies [新亞研究所] (2019- )

Member, CDC-HKEAA Committee of Ethics and Religious Studies for New Senior Secondary, Education Bureau, HKSAR (2004-2008)

Setter, HKEAA, HKSAR (2005-2007)

Marker, HKEAA, HKSAR (2001-2006)

Add-hoc reviewer of academic journals

International Journal of Children’s Spirituality

Mindfulness

Psychology Health and Medicine

Assessment



Selected Output

Scholarly Books, Monographs and Chapters
Lau, N.S. (2021). Changing socio-political identity and students’ mental health: Promoting positive education and holistic education in Hong Kong. R. Wills, M. de Souza, M. Bakkar, J. M. McMahon & C. Roux, The Bloomsbury Handbook of culture and identity from Early Childhood to Early Adulthood Perceptions and Implications (-----). London: Bloomsbury Academic.
Lau, N. S. (2021). Pilgrimage, travelling gurus and transnational networks: Lay meditation movement in Contemporary Chinese societies. In J. S. Cornelio, F. Gauthier, T. Martikainen & L. Woodhead (Eds.), Routledge international handbook of religion in global society (187-198). Abingdon: Routledge.
無著比丘(Bhikkhu Anālayo)著; 釋心承、劉雅詩、呂文仁譯(2020):從比較的觀點看念住的實修方法,台北市,法鼓文化。
Lau, N. S. (2020). Recent emergence of Theravāda meditation communities in contemporary China. In J.S. Harding, V.S. Hori & A. Soucy (Eds.), Buddhism in the Global Eye: Beyond East and West (103-119). London: Bloomsbury Academic.
Lau, N.S. (2017). Application of mindfulness approaches for promoting mental health of students in school counselling. M.T. Hue (Edited), School counselling in Chinese Context: School practice for helping students in needs in Hong Kong (59-75). Abingdon: Routledge.
Lau, Ngar-sze (2016). Buddhist modernism and development of contemporary meditation: the case of newly developed Theravāda Buddhist meditation practices in Hong Kong. Zheng Xiaoyun 鄭筱筠, The Report of Southeast Asian Religion. The Transformation and Innovation of Southeast Asian Religions (145-162). Beijing: China Social Sciences Press. [北京: 中國社會科學出版社].
Lau, N.S. (2014). Life Education in Contemporary Chinese Societies. Jacqueline Watson, Marian de Souza & Ann Trousdale (Eds.), Global Perspectives on Spirituality and Education (166-180). Abingdon: Routledge.
Lau, N.S. (2012). Buddhist spiritual education and modern school management. In Xueyu (ed.), Buddhism and Management (.). Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press [北京: 中國社會科學出版社].
Lau, N. S. (2009). Cultivation of mindfulness: Promoting holistic learning and well-being. In M. de Souza (Ed.), International Handbook of Education for Spirituality, Care and Wellbeing (pp.711). Dordrecht: Springer.

Journal Publications
Cheung, R.Y.M., & Lau, E.N.S. (2021). Is mindfulness linked to life satisfaction? Testing savoring positive experiences and gratitude as mediators (doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.591103). Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 591103.
Lau, N.S. (2021). Teaching transnational Buddhist meditation with vipassanā (neiguan內觀) and mindfulness (zhengnian正念). Religions [A&HCI Scopus 0.6], 12(3), 1-24.
Au, T.C., & Lau. N.S. (2021). Private music teachers’ knowledge of and attitudes toward students with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 0, 1-9.
Lau, N.S. (2021). Religious education in Asia: spiritual diversity in globalized times. International Journal of Children's Spirituality, 25, 1-2.
Lau, N.S. (2020). Hybrid form of Buddhist meditation practice in contemporary China: Discussing the case of Mahasati Dynamic meditation. International Journal for the Study of Chan Buddhism and Human Civilization, 7, 64-79.
Lo, H. H. M., Ho, W. C., Lau, N. S., Lo, C. W., Mak, W. W. S., Ng, S. M., Wong, S.Y.S., Wong, J.O.Y., Lui S. S. Y., Lo C. S. L., Lin, E. C. L., Poon, M. F., Choi, K. & Leung, C. W. C. (2019). A brief mindfulness-based family psychoeducation intervention for Chinese young adults with first episode psychosis: A study protocol. Frontiers in Psychology. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1-10.
Chan, S. K., Zhang, D., Bögels, S. M., Chan, C. S., Lai, K. Y., Lo, H. H., Yip B. H., Lau N. S., Gao, T. T., Wong, S. Y. (2018). Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention (MYmind) for children with ADHD and their parents: protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMJ-Open, 8(11), 1-9.
Lau, N.S. (2017). Desire for self-healing: Lay practice of satipaṭṭhāna in contemporary China. Asian Medicine: Tradition and Modernity, 12, 317-335.
Lam, C. C., Lau, N. S., Lo, H.H.M. & Woo, D.M.S. (2015). Developing mindfulness programs for adolescents: Lessons learnt from an attempt in Hong Kong. Social Work in mental Health, 13(4), 365-389.
Hue, M. T., & Lau, N. S. (2015). Promoting well-being and preventing burnout in teacher education: a pilot study of a mindfulness-based programme for pre-service teachers in Hong Kong. Teacher Development, 19(3), 381-401.
Lau, N. S., & Hue, M. T. (2011). Preliminary outcomes of a mindfulness-based programme for Hong Kong adolescents in schools: Well-being, stress and depressive symptoms. International Journal of Children's Spirituality, 16(4), 305-320.
Lau, N. S. (2010). Review of Sid Brown, A Buddhist in the Classroom. International Journal of Children’s Spirituality, 15 (2), 195-197.

Conference Papers
Lau, N.S. (2019, June). Promoting meditation as social reform in the global religious context: The education approaches of Master Sheng Yen. The 2019 International Conference on Buddhism and Social Science, Taiwan ROC.
Lau, N.S. (2019, May). A pilot study of Sanfengpai meditation sickness poem. The Third Conference on Texts and Studies on East Asian Buddhism from the 16th to 19th Centuries, Taiwan ROC.
Lau, N.S. (2019, March). Pilgrimage, travelling yogis and transnational networks: Lay meditation movement in Contemporary China. The Metamorphosis of Buddhism in New Era China, Paris, France.
Lau, N.S. (2019, January). Chan revival and female spirituality: Chinese women practicing transnational meditation in contemporary China. The 4th Modern Chinese Buddhism Forum, Taiwan ROC.
Lau, N.S. (2018, December). Geography, space and sacred: Reflecting the development of mindfulness movement (in Chinese). New Perspectives in Religious Studies: 30th Anniversary of Department of Religious Studies of Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, ROC.
Lau, N.S. (2018, July). Exploration of inter-religious meditation experience: Mindfulness practice of Christians in Hong Kong. International Conference on Mindfulness 11th to 13th July 2018 University of Amsterdam, .
Lau, Ngar-sze (2018, June). ‘Meditation sickness’ (Chanbing) and modern society: exploring Master Sheng Yen’s understanding. The 7th Chinese Buddhism & Sheng Yen International Conference, Taiwan, ROC.
Lau, Ngar-sze (2017, December). Development of transnational Theravāda meditation in contemporary China. 18th annual conference of the Hong Kong Sociological Association • December 2, 2016, Hong Kong.
Lau, N.S. (2016, July). Application of mindfulness approaches for promoting mental health of students in school counselling. The 15th International Conference on Children’s Spirituality, Bishop Grosseteste University, Lincoln, UK.
Lau, N.S. (2013, July). Preventing burnout in teacher education: a pilot mindfulness-based programme for pre-service teachers in Hong Kong. Changing Boundaries: Mindfulness, Spirituality and Education, Dublin City University.
Lau, N.S. (2012, February). Enhancing psychosocial well-being and academic performances of adolescents: Developing a 12-session Mindfulness Programme for Hong Kong students. The 12th International Conference on Children’s Spirituality, UK.
Lau, N.S. (2012, February). Mindfulness and Embodiment: Mind, Body and Spiritual Experience. The Second International Conference on Religion and Spirituality in Society, UBC, Vancouver.
Lau, N. S. (2010, August). Exploring female spiritualities in the arising Theravada Buddhist meditation groups in Hong Kong. The Fifth International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences 2010, Cambridge, UK.
劉雅詩(2010,3):結合科學與宗教的智慧——以心靈教育促進靈性健康,《共建和諧——科學、宗教與發展研討會文集》,澳門,中國。
Lau, N. S. (2009, July). Promoting attention, relaxation and well-being: Mindfulness practice for students in a secondary school settings. Paper presented at The 9th International Conference on Children’s Spirituality, Canterbury, United Kingdom.
Lau, N. S. (2009, July). Spiritual dimension of decision making: the art of using intuition. Paper presented at The 9th International Conference on Children’s Spirituality, Canterbury, United Kingdom.
劉雅詩(2009,6):二十世紀香港女子教育的歷史與發展——以「寶覺義學」為例,論文發表於「教育與承傳」學術研討會及展覽,香港。
Lau, N. S. (2009, February). A pilot study on mindfulness-intervention and well-being, attention level and stress level of Hong Kong students. Paper presented at the Asia Pacific Conference on Children's Spirituality, Hong Kong.
Lau, N. S. (2009, February). Mindfulness education for student teachers (Workshop). Paper presented at the Asia Pacific Conference on Children's Spirituality, Hong Kong.
Lau, N. S. (2008, July). Buddhist spiritual education and contemporary school educational administration. Paper presented at the 3rd Young Scholars Symposium of Buddhist Studies: Buddhism and Management, Hong Kong.
Lau, N. S. (2008, January). Cultivation of mindfulness: Promoting spirituality in classroom. Paper presented at the 8th Conference on Children's Spirituality, Australia.
Lau, N. S. (2007, July). Cultivation of mindfulness: Spirituality in education. Paper presented at the Conference on Making Sense of Spirituality, UK.
Lau, E. N. S. (2007, June). Mindfulness practice and spiritual experiences. Paper presented at the Workshop on "Spiritually, Happiness, and Culture", Hong Kong.

All Other Outputs
Lau, N. S. (2010). Workshop presentation: Design of mindfulness program for student teachers in Hong Kong. USA: The 8th Annual International Scientific Conference for Clinicians, Researchers and Educators. Centre for Mindfulness, University of Massachusetts Medical School.
劉雅詩(編)(2009):《從德育到宗教教育與心靈教育——一個中國學者的反思》,香港,香港教育學院宗教教育與心靈教育中心。
許明得、劉雅詩(2009):覺知教育:創造心靈教育的理想條件,香港,香港教育學院宗教教育與心靈教育中心。
劉雅詩(編)(2008):《探究宗教 陶造心靈》,香港,教育局、香港教育學院宗教教育與心靈教育中心。
劉雅詩(2008):理想的教與學條件在課室裡培育覺知 《信報》(2008年5月12日),香港。
Chan, S. H., Chan, T. S. W., Kung, L. Y., Lam, Y. W., Lau, E. N. S., Leung, Y. S., Lok, W. L., Ng, Y. M., & Yip, C. M. (2007). Ethics and Religious Studies Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4-6) 倫理與宗教 : 課程及評估指引 (中四至中六). Hong Kong: Education and Manpower Bureau.

Project

Promoting Positive Education and Pedagogy for Students with SEN: With Chinese Culture Approach
Promoting Positive education and pedagogy for students with SEN: with Chinese culture approach
Project Start Year: 2021, Principal Investigator(s): LAU, Ngar Sze, Elsa 劉雅詩, YUM, Yen Na Cherry 任演納
 
A Stepped-Care, Multi-disciplinary, Evidence-based Approach to Strengthen Adolescence and Family Well-being after Social Unrest
A Stepped-Care, Multi-disciplinary, Evidence-based Approach to Strengthen Adolescence and Family Well-being after Social Unrest
Project Start Year: 2020, Principal Investigator(s): Lo, Hay-Ming Herman (LAU, Ngar Sze Elsa 劉雅詩 as Co-Investigator)
 
Meditation on Soles of the Feet and Positive Behaviour for students with SEN—a Pilot study
Meditation on Soles of the Feet and Positive Behaviour for students with SEN—a Pilot study
Project Start Year: 2020, Principal Investigator(s): LAU, Ngar Sze, Elsa 劉雅詩
 
Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Caregivers of Frail Older Chinese Adults: Testing a Model of Intergenerational Caregiving
Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Caregivers of Frail Older Chinese Adults: Testing a Model of Intergenerational Caregiving
Project Start Year: 2020, Principal Investigator(s): Lo Hay Ming, Herman (LAU, Ngar Sze Elsa 劉雅詩 as Co-Investigator)
 
Mindfulness-based Training for Teachers and Children in the Preschool Setting
..
Project Start Year: 2020, Principal Investigator(s): CHEUNG, Yuen Man Rebecca 張婉文 (LAU, Ngar Sze, Elsa 劉雅詩 as Co-Investigator)
 
Promoting Wellbeing for students via Positive and Holistic Education Strategies: Horticultural Therapy, Tea Ceremony, Mindful Singing Bowl Therapy
Promoting Wellbeing for students via Positive and Holistic Education Strategies: Horticultural Therapy, Tea Ceremony, Mindful Singing Bowl Therapy
Project Start Year: 2020, Principal Investigator(s): LAU, Ngar Sze, Elsa 劉雅詩, YUM, Yen Na Cherry 任演納
 
Religious Education Curricula in Hong Kong Schools: A Comparative Study across Religious Bodies and Time
Religious Education Curricula in Hong Kong Schools: A Comparative Study across Religious Bodies and Time
Project Start Year: 2020, Principal Investigator(s): Tse Kwan Choi Thomas (LAU, Ngar Sze Elsa 劉雅詩 as Co-Investigator)
 
Brief Mindfulness-based Family Psychoeducation for Students with Early Psychosis: A Mixed Methods Study
Brief mindfulness-based family psychoeducation for students with early psychosis: A mixed methods study
Project Start Year: 2019, Principal Investigator(s): Dr. Lo Hay Ming Herman (LAU, Ngar Sze Elsa 劉雅詩 as Co-Investigator)
 
Mindfulness, Spirituality, and Well-being: A Mixed-Method Study Involving Chinese Meditation Practitioners
In this study, we aim to examine the longitudinal correlates of mindfulness, including self-compassion, spirituality, emotion regulation, and well-being via the recruitment at a cross-sectarian event titled “Zen Meditation with Thousands 2019.”
Project Start Year: 2019, Principal Investigator(s): CHEUNG, Yuen Man Rebecca 張婉文 (LAU, Ngar Sze Elsa 劉雅詩 as Co-Principal Investigator)
 
Mindfulness-based Training for Children in Preschool Setting: Effects on Self-regulation, School Adjustment, and Psychosocial Development
..
Project Start Year: 2019, Principal Investigator(s): CHEUNG, Yuen Man Rebecca 張婉文 (LAU, Ngar Sze Elsa 劉雅詩 as Co-Investigator)
 
Promoting Wellness & Positive Learning Community: Mindfulness, Resilience and Compassion (MRC) Project for University Staff and Students, School Teachers and Students
This project aims at promoting positive and well-being culture via developing feasible evidenced-based mindfulness, resilience and compassion (MRC) programme for university staff and students, and school teachers and students. The participants will receive professional training before delivering the programme to students whom they will work with. In the initial stage of the project, it is hoped that the project can enhance self-understanding and develop self-identity of oneself, enrich positiv . . .
Project Start Year: 2019, Principal Investigator(s): HUE, Ming Tak 許明得 (LAU, Ngar Sze Elsa 劉雅詩 as Co-Investigator)
 
A Pilot Study of Mindfulness Programme for University Students
A Pilot Study of Mindfulness Programme for University Students
Project Start Year: 2018, Principal Investigator(s): HUE, Ming Tak 許明得 (LAU, Ngar Sze Elsa 劉雅詩 as Co-Investigator)
 
A Study of a Mindfulness and Self-compassion Programme for University Students with the Support of Online Learning and Assessment Systems
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Project Start Year: 2018, Principal Investigator(s): LAU, Ngar Sze Elsa 劉雅詩
 
Building Resilience in Classroom: Developing School-Based Mindfulness and Self-compassion Programme for Teachers and Students
Building resilience in classroom: Developing School-Based Mindfulness and Self-compassion Programme for teachers and students
Project Start Year: 2018, Principal Investigator(s): LAU, Ngar Sze Elsa 劉雅詩
 
The Effects of a Mindfulness Based Intervention - MYmind - for Children with ADHD and Their Parents: A Randomised Controlled Trial
The effects of a mindfulness based intervention - MYmind - for children with ADHD and their parents: a randomised controlled trial
Project Start Year: 2018, Principal Investigator(s): Prof. Wong Yeung Shan Samuel (LAU, Ngar Sze Elsa 劉雅詩 as Co-Investigator)
 
Primary School Religious Education Curricula across Religion-based School-sponsoring bodies in Hong Kong
A study of current primary religious education curriculum by comparing similarities and differences in Hong Kong
Project Start Year: 2017, Principal Investigator(s): Tse Kwan Tsoi Thomas (LAU, Ngar Sze Elsa 劉雅詩 as Co-Investigator)
 
The use of mindfulness-based intervention for improving bracing compliance for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients: A randomized controlled trial
The use of mindfulness-based intervention for improving bracing compliance for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients: A randomized controlled trial
Project Start Year: 2017, Principal Investigator(s): Dr. Yip Hon Kei Bejamin (LAU, Ngar Sze Elsa 劉雅詩 as Co-Investigator)
 
Enhancing psychosocial well-being and academic performances of adolescents: Developing Mindfulness Training Program for Hong Kong students
In this research, we are interested in studying the impact of mindfulness training programs on the psychosocial factors (Attention control, Emotional regulation), and the relationship between academic self-concept, learning motivation and academic results of HK students from Band 3 schools. A 12-week mindfulness program will be developed for adolescents in Hong Kong secondary school settings with emphasis on the attention control and emotional regulation that might directly impact on academic se . . .
Project Start Year: 2011, Principal Investigator(s): LAM CHI CHUNG 林智中 (LAU, Ngar Sze Elsa 劉雅詩 as Co-Investigator)
 
Mindfulness Training for Children in Local School Setting
In the field of clinical psychology, the introduction of mindfulness-based intervention has been termed “the third wave” in contemporary literature, as it revolutionized treatment focus by incorporating eastern philosophical concepts and ideology into traditional intervention programs. Mindfulness is commonly associated with meditation practice and is defined as the experience of “paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and non-judgementally” (Kabat-Zinn, 1994, p . . .
Project Start Year: 2010, Principal Investigator(s): LO, Chuen Yee Barbara (LAU, Ngar Sze Elsa 劉雅詩 as Co-Investigator)
 
A Pilot Study on Mindfulness - Intervention and Well-being, Attention Level and Stress level of Hong Kong Student
Recent research reports revealed that increasing number of young people committing suicide caused by stress and depression is a concerned issue in the society. Mindfulness has recently been introduced into schools to promote well-being, spirituality, stress reduction and learning effectiveness. Curriculum design and leadership training incorporating mindfulness for effective learning in different ways have been also adapted in tertiary, secondary and primary schools in the West. However, there i . . .
Project Start Year: 2008, Principal Investigator(s): HUE Ming Tak (LAU Ngar Sze Elsa as Co-Investigator)